Improving Exercise-Based Interventions for People Living with Both COPD and Frailty: A Realist Review
Received 16 December 2019
Accepted for publication 10 March 2020
Published 20 April 2020 Volume 2020:15 Pages 841—855
Checked for plagiarism Yes
Review by Single anonymous peer review
Peer reviewer comments 2
Editor who approved publication: Dr Richard Russell
Lisa Jane Brighton,1 Catherine J Evans,1,2 William DC Man,3,4 Matthew Maddocks1
1Cicely Saunders Institute of Palliative Care, Policy and Rehabilitation, King’s College London, London, UK; 2Brighton General Hospital, Sussex Community NHS Foundation Trust, Brighton, UK; 3National Heart and Lung Institute, Imperial College, London, UK; 4Harefield Respiratory Research Group, Royal Brompton and Harefield NHS Foundation Trust, London, UK
Correspondence: Lisa Jane Brighton
King’s College London, Cicely Saunders Institute of Palliative Care, Policy and Rehabilitation, London, UK
Tel +44 20 7848 5041
Background: People living with both chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and frailty have high potential to benefit from exercise-based interventions, including pulmonary rehabilitation, but face challenges completing them. Research to understand ways to optimise exercise-based interventions in this group is lacking. We aimed to understand how exercise-based interventions might improve outcomes for people living with both COPD and frailty.
Methods: This realist review used database searches and handsearching until October 2019 to identify articles of relevance to exercise-based interventions for people living with COPD and frailty. A scoping search explored what is important about the context of living with COPD and frailty, and what mechanisms might be important in how exercise-based interventions result in their intended outcomes. Through discussion with stakeholders, the review scope was refined to areas deemed pertinent to improving care. We retained articles within this refined scope and identified additional articles through targeted handsearching. Data were extracted and synthesised in a narrative, prioritised by relevance and rigour.
Results: Of 344 records identified, 35 were included in the review and 20 informed the final synthesis. Important contextual factors to consider included: negative beliefs about themselves and exercise-based interventions; heterogenous presentation and comorbidities; decreased reserves and multidimensional loss; and experiencing unpredictable health and disruptions. In these circumstances, mechanisms that may help maximise outcomes from exercise-based interventions included: trusting relationships; creating a shared understanding of needs; having the capacity to address multidimensional concerns; being able to individualise approaches to needs and priorities; and flexible approaches to intervention delivery. Mixed-methods research and explicit theorising were often absent.
Conclusion: Building trusting relationships, understanding priorities, using individualised and multidisciplinary approaches, and flexible service delivery can improve the value of exercise-based interventions for people living with both COPD and frailty. Development and evaluation of new and adapted interventions should consider these principles.
Keywords: chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, frailty, rehabilitation, exercise, review