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Improved osseointegration of dental titanium implants by TiO2 nanotube arrays with recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2: a pilot in vivo study

Authors Lee JK, Choi DS, Jang I, Choi WY

Received 26 November 2014

Accepted for publication 10 January 2015

Published 5 February 2015 Volume 2015:10(1) Pages 1145—1154

DOI https://doi.org/10.2147/IJN.S78138

Checked for plagiarism Yes

Review by Single-blind

Peer reviewer comments 6

Editor who approved publication: Dr Thomas J Webster

Jae-Kwan Lee,1,4 Dong-Soon Choi,2,4 Insan Jang,2,4 Won-Youl Choi3,4

1Department of Periodontology, 2Department of Orthodontics, College of Dentistry, 3Department of Metal and Materials Engineering, 4Research Institute for Dental Engineering, Gangneung-Wonju National University, Gangneung, South Korea

Abstract: TiO2 nanotube arrays on the surface of dental implants were fabricated by two-step anodic oxidation. Their effects on bone-implant contact were researched by a pilot in vivo study. The implants were classified into four groups. An implant group with TiO2 nanotube arrays and recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (rhBMP-2) was compared with various surface implants, including machined surface, sandblasted large-grit and acid-etched surface, and TiO2 nanotube array surface groups. The diameter of the TiO2 nanotube window and TiO2 nanotube were ~70 nm and ~110 nm, respectively. The rhBMP-2 was loaded into TiO2 nanotube arrays and elution was detected by an interferometric biosensing method. A change in optical thickness of ~75 nm was measured by flow cell testing for 9 days, indicating elution of rhBMP-2 from the TiO2 nanotube arrays. For the in vivo study, the four groups of implants were placed into the proximal tibia of New Zealand white rabbits. In the implant group with TiO2 nanotube arrays and rhBMP-2, the bone-to-implant contact ratio was 29.5% and the bone volume ratio was 77.3%. Bone remodeling was observed not only in the periosteum but also in the interface between the bone and implant threads. These values were higher than in the machined surface, sandblasted large-grit and acid-etched surface, and TiO2 nanotube array surface groups. Our results suggest that TiO2 nanotube arrays could potentially be used as a reservoir for rhBMP-2 to reinforce osseointegration on the surface of dental implants.

Keywords: TiO2 nanotube arrays, drug reservoir, dental implant, bone morphogenetic protein


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