Improved lung function and patient-reported outcomes with co-suspension delivery technology glycopyrrolate/formoterol fumarate metered dose inhaler in COPD: a randomized Phase III study conducted in Asia, Europe, and the USA
Received 21 April 2018
Accepted for publication 23 July 2018
Published 26 September 2018 Volume 2018:13 Pages 2969—2984
Checked for plagiarism Yes
Review by Single-blind
Peer reviewer comments 2
Editor who approved publication: Dr Richard Russell
Brian J Lipworth,1 David J Collier,2 Yasuhiro Gon,3 Nanshan Zhong,4 Koichi Nishi,5 Rongchang Chen,4 Samir Arora,6 Andrea Maes,7 Shahid Siddiqui,8 Colin Reisner,7,8 Ubaldo J Martin8
1Scottish Centre for Respiratory Research, Ninewells Hospital, University of Dundee, Dundee, Scotland, UK; 2William Harvey Research Institute, Barts and the London School of Medicine and Dentistry, Queen Mary University of London, London, UK; 3Itabashi Hospital, Nihon University School of Medicine, Itabashi, Tokyo, Japan; 4Guangzhou Institute of Respiratory Health, State Key Laboratory of Respiratory Diseases, National Clinical Research Center of Respiratory Diseases, The First Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou Medical University, Guangzhou, People’s Republic of China; 5Ishikawa Prefectural Central Hospital, Kanazawa, Ishikawa, Japan; 6Aventiv Research Inc., Columbus, OH, USA; 7Pearl – a member of the AstraZeneca group, Morristown, NJ, USA; 8AstraZeneca, Gaithersburg, MD, USA
Background: COPD is a major global cause of mortality and morbidity. PINNACLE-4 evaluated the efficacy and safety of GFF MDI (glycopyrrolate/formoterol fumarate metered dose inhaler) in patients from Asia, Europe, and the USA with moderate-to-very severe COPD.
Methods: In this double-blind, placebo-controlled, Phase III study, patients were randomized to treatment with GFF MDI 18/9.6 µg, glycopyrrolate (GP) MDI 18 µg, formoterol fumarate (FF) MDI 9.6 µg, or placebo MDI (all twice daily) for 24 weeks. Lung function, patient-reported outcomes (symptoms and health-related quality of life), and safety were assessed.
Results: Of the 1,756 patients randomized, 1,740 patients were included in the intent-to-treat population (mean age 64.2 years, 74.1% male, and 40.2% Asian). GFF MDI significantly improved morning predose trough FEV1 at Week 24 (primary endpoint) vs placebo MDI, GP MDI, and FF MDI (least squares mean differences: 165, 59, and 72 mL, respectively; all P<0.0001). GFF MDI also significantly improved other lung function endpoints vs placebo MDI, GP MDI, and FF MDI and patient-reported outcomes vs placebo MDI and GP MDI. A larger proportion of patients treated with GFF MDI achieved the minimum clinically important difference in Transition Dyspnea Index score vs GP MDI and placebo MDI and in St George’s Respiratory Questionnaire score vs placebo MDI. Adverse event rates were similar across treatment groups.
Conclusion: These results demonstrated the efficacy of GFF MDI in patients with moderate-to-very severe COPD. GFF MDI was well tolerated, with a safety profile commensurate with long-acting bronchodilators.
Keywords: β2-agonist, bronchodilator, COPD, co-suspension delivery technology, muscarinic antagonist
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