Impact of lymphovascular invasion on recurrence and progression rates in patients with pT1 urothelial carcinoma of bladder after transurethral resection
Authors Sha N, Xie L, Chen T, Xing C, Liu X, Zhang Y, Shen Z, Xu H, Wu Z, Hu H, Wu C, Tian D
Received 2 September 2015
Accepted for publication 14 October 2015
Published 18 November 2015 Volume 2015:8 Pages 3401—3406
Checked for plagiarism Yes
Review by Single-blind
Peer reviewer comments 3
Editor who approved publication: Professor Daniele Santini
Nan Sha,* Linguo Xie,* Tao Chen,* Chen Xing, Xiaoteng Liu, Yu Zhang, Zhonghua Shen, Hao Xu, Zhouliang Wu, Hailong Hu, Changli Wu
Department of Urology, Tianjin Key Laboratory of Urology, Tianjin Institute of Urology, Second Hospital of Tianjin Medical University, Tianjin, People’s Republic of China
*These authors contributed equally to this work
Objective: To evaluate the clinical significance of lymphovascular invasion (LVI) on recurrence and progression rates in patients with pT1 urothelial carcinoma of bladder after transurethral resection.
Methods: This retrospective study was performed with 155 patients with newly diagnosed pT1 urothelial carcinoma of bladder who were treated with transurethral resection of bladder tumor at our institution from January 2006 to January 2010. The presence or absence of LVI was examined by pathologists. Chi-square test was performed to identify the correlations between LVI and other clinical and pathological features. Kaplan–Meier method was used to estimate the recurrence-free survival (RFS) and progression-free survival curves and difference was determined by the log-rank test. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to determine the predictive factors through a Cox proportional hazards analysis model.
Results: LVI was detected in a total of 34 patients (21.9%). While LVI was associated with high-grade tumors (P<0.001) and intravesical therapy (P=0.009). Correlations with age (P=0.227), sex (P=0.376), tumor size (P=0.969), tumor multiplicity (P=0.196), carcinoma in situ (P=0.321), and smoking (P=0.438) were not statistically significant. There was a statistically significant tendency toward higher recurrence rate and shorter RFS time in LVI-positive patients. However, no statistically significant differences were observed in progression rate between the two groups. Moreover, multivariate Cox proportional hazards analysis revealed that LVI, tumor size, and smoking were independent prognostic predictors of recurrence. The hazard ratios (95% confidence interval) were 2.042 (1.113–3.746, P=0.021), 1.817 (1.014–3.256, P=0.045), and 2.079 (1.172–3.687, P=0.012), respectively.
Conclusion: The presence of LVI in transurethral resection of bladder tumor specimens is significantly associated with higher recurrence rate and shorter RFS time in patients with newly diagnosed T1 urothelial carcinoma of the bladder. It is an independent prognostic predictor for disease recurrence. Thus, patients with LVI should be followed up closely.
Keywords: bladder urothelial carcinoma, TURBT, lymphovascular invasion, recurrence, progression
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