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Impact of food pattern on glycemic control among type 2 diabetic patients: a cross-sectional study in the United Arab Emirates

Authors Sadiya A, Mnla R

Received 19 March 2019

Accepted for publication 20 May 2019

Published 16 July 2019 Volume 2019:12 Pages 1143—1150

DOI https://doi.org/10.2147/DMSO.S209320

Checked for plagiarism Yes

Review by Single-blind

Peer reviewers approved by Dr Melinda Thomas

Peer reviewer comments 2

Editor who approved publication: Professor Ming-Hui Zou


Amena Sadiya, Rama Mnla

Lifestyle Clinic, Rashid Centre for Diabetes and Research, Sheikh Khalifa Medical City Ajman, Ajman, United Arab Emirates

Background: Optimum nutrition has an integral role in glycemic control of diabetic patients. In this study, we intend to explore the frequency of food group/item consumption and its association with the risk of poor glycemic control (HbA1c >7%) among type 2 diabetes (T2D) patients in the United Arab Emirates (UAE), since there are no data available in this region.
Methods: In this retrospective cross-sectional study, data on frequency of food group/item consumption of 843 T2D patients aged ≥18 years were collected from records documented by dietitians in a tertiary care center in the UAE.
Results: The trends of food consumption demonstrate that one-third of the participants consumed all five major food groups, and 10% adhered to the recommended “MyPlate” meal pattern with the optimum mix of food groups. Univariate analysis indicated that participants who adhered to the MyPlate meal pattern presented lower HbA1c (β=−0.78, 95% CI −1.22, −0.25; P<0.01). Daily intake of fresh fruit was shown to be protective (β=−0.64, 95% CI −1.26, −0.04; P=0.04) while fruit juice intake >1 time/day increased the risk of poor glycemic control (β=1.53, 95% CI 0.72, 2.35; P<0.001). Multiple logistic regression models (area under the receiver operating characteristics curve =0.67) showed consumption of fizzy drinks and fast food ≥1 time/week increased the odds of poor glycemic control by 2.05 (95% CI 1.16, 3.68; P=0.01) and 1.83 (95% CI 1.02, 3.3 P=0.04), respectively, while fresh fruit consumption indicated a clinically relevant protective effect  (OR=0.65, 95% CI 0.23, 1.79; P=0.4).
Conclusion: Consuming food such as fizzy drinks and fast food ≥1 time/week could possibly serve as an independent predictor for poor glycemic control, while fresh fruit could have a protective effect on glycemic control among T2D patients.
Clinical Trial Registry: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT03388229

Keywords: diabetes, food pattern, United Arab Emirates, food consumption, glycemic control


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