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Impact of combined pulmonary fibrosis and emphysema on surgical complications and long-term survival in patients undergoing surgery for non-small-cell lung cancer

Authors Hata A, Sekine Y, Kota O, Koh E, Yoshino I

Received 10 August 2015

Accepted for publication 21 December 2015

Published 9 June 2016 Volume 2016:11(1) Pages 1261—1268


Checked for plagiarism Yes

Review by Single-blind

Peer reviewer comments 3

Editor who approved publication: Dr Richard Russell

Atsushi Hata,1,2 Yasuo Sekine,1 Ohashi Kota,1 Eitetsu Koh,1 Ichiro Yoshino2

1Department of Thoracic Surgery, Tokyo Women’s Medical University Yachiyo Medical Centre, Yachiyo, 2Department of General Thoracic Surgery, Graduate School of Medicine, Chiba University, Chiba City, Chiba, Japan

Purpose: The outcome of radical surgery for lung cancer was investigated in patients with combined pulmonary fibrosis and emphysema (CPFE).
Methods: A retrospective chart review involved 250 patients with lung cancer who underwent pulmonary resection at Tokyo Women’s Medical University Yachiyo Medical Center between 2008 and 2012. Based on the status of nontumor-bearing lung evaluated by preoperative computed tomography (CT), the patients were divided into normal, emphysema, interstitial pneumonia (IP), and CPFE groups, and their clinical characteristics and surgical outcome were analyzed.
Results: The normal, emphysema, IP, and CPFE groups comprised 124 (49.6%), 108 (43.2%), seven (2.8%), and eleven (4.4%) patients, respectively. The 5-year survival rate of the CPFE group (18.7%) was significantly lower than that of the normal (77.5%) and emphysema groups (67.1%) (P<0.0001 and P=0.0027, respectively) but equivalent to that of the IP group (44.4%) (P=0.2928). In a subset analysis of cancer stage, the 5-year overall survival rate of the CPFE group in stage I (n=8, 21.4%) was also lower than that of the normal group and emphysema group in stage I (n=91, 84.9% and n=70, 81.1%; P<0.0001 and P<0.0001, respectively). During entire observation period, the CPFE group was more likely to die of respiratory failure (27.2%) compared with the normal and emphysema groups (P<0.0001). Multivariate analysis of prognostic factors using Cox proportional hazard model identified CPFE as an independent risk factor (P=0.009).
Conclusion: CPFE patients have a poorer prognosis than those with emphysema alone or with normal lung on CT finding. The intensive evaluation of preoperative CT images is important, and radical surgery for lung cancer should be decided carefully when patients concomitantly harbor CPFE, because of unfavorable prognosis.

Keywords: combined pulmonary fibrosis and emphysema, lung cancer, surgical treatment, long-term outcomes

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