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Impact of a pharmacist-led diabetes management on outcomes, utilization, and cost

Authors Maeng DD, Graham J, Bogart M, Hao J, Wright EA

Received 18 May 2018

Accepted for publication 3 July 2018

Published 24 September 2018 Volume 2018:10 Pages 551—562


Checked for plagiarism Yes

Review by Single-blind

Peer reviewers approved by Dr Amy Norman

Peer reviewer comments 3

Editor who approved publication: Professor Giorgio Lorenzo Colombo

Daniel D Maeng, Jove Graham, Michael Bogart, Jing Hao, Eric A Wright

Department of Epidemiology and Health Services Research, Geisinger, Danville, PA, USA

Purpose: Pharmacist-led medication therapy disease management (MTDM) has shown improvement in clinical outcomes in patients with certain chronic diseases. However, only limited data demonstrating the impact on health care utilization and cost of care are available. This study seeks to evaluate the impact of a pharmacist-led MTDM program on clinical surrogate outcomes, care utilization, and cost of care among patients with diabetes mellitus.
Methods: A retrospective cohort study was conducted by utilizing electronic health records and insurance claims data. Patients were identified between February 2011 and December 2014. Data were collected from Geisinger, a large integrated health care system located in Pennsylvania and southern New Jersey. A total of 5,500 patients with diabetes mellitus were identified; 2,750 were enrolled in MTDM and were 1-to-1 propensity score-matched to a comparison cohort not enrolled in a pharmacist-led MTDM program.
Results: There were no differences between groups in composite HbA1c, blood pressure, or low-density lipoprotein cholesterol goal attainment at 12 months (12% vs 12%, P=0.53). HbA1c goal was reached more frequently among patients without MTDM compared to those at 12 months (57% vs 51%, P<0.0001). There were no significant differences between the two cohorts in the attainment of blood pressure or low-density lipoprotein cholesterol goals at 12 months. MTDM was associated with reduced all-cause hospitalization rate (–19.6%; P=0.02) as well as increased primary care physician visits (18.5%; P<0.001) and lower average per-member-per-month medical cost (–13%, P=0.027).
Conclusion: Despite the lack of impact on the clinical surrogate outcomes, MTDM was associated with lower cost of care and fewer hospitalizations, possibly facilitated by increased monitoring (ie, higher primary care utilization).

Keywords: diabetes, pharmacist, medication therapy management, health outcomes, HbA1c, utilization, cost of care

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