Immunosuppressive therapy related adherence, beliefs and self-management in kidney transplant outpatients
Received 21 August 2018
Accepted for publication 26 October 2018
Published 6 December 2018 Volume 2018:12 Pages 2605—2613
Checked for plagiarism Yes
Review by Single-blind
Peer reviewers approved by Dr Andrew Yee
Peer reviewer comments 2
Editor who approved publication: Dr Johnny Chen
Barbora Vankova,1 Katerina Mala-Ladova,1 Ales Antonin Kubena,1 Josef Maly,1 Sylvie Dusilova Sulkova2
1Department of Social and Clinical Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy in Hradec Králové, Charles University, Hradec Králové, Czech Republic; 2Hemodialysis Centre, University Hospital, Hradec Králové, Czech Republic
Purpose: Kidney transplant (KTx) recipients should strictly adhere to their lifelong complex therapeutic regimen, and any barriers to medication adherence can weaken correct patient behavior. This study aimed to determine the adherence to immunosuppressive therapy (IS) in KTx adult outpatients in the Czech Republic, and attempted to gain a greater insight into their attitudes toward IS and self-management tasks.
Materials and methods: Pharmacist-led structured interviews were conducted to assess self-reported adherence to IS using the Czech version of the Medication Adherence Report Scale, in the context of attitudes toward IS in terms of necessity and concern scale of the Beliefs about Medicines Questionnaire. A specific questionnaire was developed to target IS self-management tasks. Medication records were also reviewed for IS serum levels, reflecting direct adherence measurement. Descriptive statistics were used to calculate adherence and self-management variables, and were analyzed by univariate and multivariate correlations, including the decision-tree method.
Results: The interview was completed by 211 (male 123; mean age 55.0±12.4 years, mean time 6.6±5.9 years after KTx) of the total of 235 patients. Full adherence to IS was reported by 173 (82.0%) patients. Most of them had IS serum levels within the therapeutic range, however, cyclosporine was associated with the highest variability (P<0.001). Non-adherence and concerns increased over time after KTx (P<0.05). Despite the more common unintentional non-adherence (P<0.001), relatively high concerns signified the risk of not taking IS as prescribed. Concerns also correlated with the perception of impaired health status (P<0.01), as well as the occurrence of IS-related adverse effects (P<0.001). The patients’ awareness of their therapy was insufficient, and main gaps in self-management comprised inadequate sun protection, incorrect administration of IS, and unfamiliarity with the IS name, or their indications.
Conclusion: Although self-reported adherence to IS therapy was satisfactory, the comprehensive evaluation enabled the detection of greater concerns about IS, as well as underestimated self-management tasks that posttransplant interventions should target in the future.
Keywords: medication adherence, self-management, kidney transplantation, immunosuppression, beliefs about medicines
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