Immunosuppressants and new onset gallstone disease in patients having undergone renal transplantation
Received 27 June 2017
Accepted for publication 22 September 2017
Published 13 October 2017 Volume 2017:13 Pages 1391—1398
Checked for plagiarism Yes
Review by Single-blind
Peer reviewers approved by Dr Hoa Le
Peer reviewer comments 4
Editor who approved publication: Professor Deyun Wang
Fu-Chao Liu,1,2,* Pei-Chi Ting,1,2,* Jr-Rung Lin,3 Huang-Ping Yu1,2
1Department of Anesthesiology, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, 2College of Medicine, Chang Gung University, 3Clinical Informatics and Medical Statistics Research Center and Graduate Institute of Clinical Medicine, Chang Gung University, Taoyuan, Taiwan, Republic of China
*These authors contributed equally to this work
Background: There are very few reports describing the development of gallstone disease after renal transplantation (GSDART) in Asia. The aim of this population-based study was to explore the prevalence, predictive factors, and outcomes of newly developed GSDART. The relationship between immunosuppressant and GSDART was also explored.
Patients and methods: Renal transplantation (RT) recipients were identified from the National Health Insurance Research Database of Taiwan during January 1998–December 2012. In total, 2,630 adult patients, who had neither been diagnosed with gallstone disease (GSD) nor undergone cholecystectomy, were included in this study. These patients underwent follow-up till the diagnosis of GSDART was established. Risk factors and post-RT immunosuppressant treatments were investigated and analyzed using Cox regression analysis. The cumulative mortality in patients with and without GSDART was also evaluated.
Results: The final dataset comprised 143 patients who developed GSDART and 2,487 patients who had not been diagnosed with GSDART during the follow-up period. The prevalence of GSDART was 5.4%. On performing univariate analysis, age (p=0.0276) and certain immunosuppressant administrations were identified as significant risk factors for GSDART. After adjusting for age, multivariable analysis showed that everolimus (adjusted hazard ratio 0.287, p=0.0013) was independently associated with the development of GSDART. The overall mortality rate (6.99%, p=0.0341) was significantly decreased in the GSDART group.
Conclusion: Increased age was the most consistent risk factor for GSD, and everolimus-based immunotherapy indicated a decreased incidence of GSDART in RT recipients. The long-term mortality rate was significantly decreased in patients with GSDART.
Keywords: gallstone disease, immunosuppressant, population-based study, renal transplantation
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