Immune parameters, symptoms of upper respiratory tract infections, and training-load indicators in volleyball athletes
Rodrigo Dias1, Anelena Bueno Frollini1, Diego Trevisan Brunelli1, André Katayama Yamada1, Richard Diego Leite4, Ricardo Adamoli Simões1, Guilherme Souza Lobo Salles1, Débora Trevisan1, Idico Luiz Pellegrinotti1, Marcelo de Castro César1, Silvia Cristina Crepaldi Alves1, Rozangela Verlengia1, João Paulo Borin2, Jonato Prestes2,3, Claudia Regina Cavaglieri2
1Núcleo de Performance Humana, Mestrado em Educação Física, Faculdade de Ciências da Saúde, Universidade Metodista de Piracicaba, São Paulo, Brasil; 2Faculdade de Educação Física (FEF) Universidade Estadual de Campinas – UNICAMP, Campinas, Brasil; 3Programa de Mestrado e Doutorado em Educação Física, Universidade Católica de Brasília, Brasília, Brasil; 4Laboratório de Pesquisa Clínica e Experimental em Biologia Vascular (BioVasc), Departamento de Ciências Fisiológicas, Universidade Estadual do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brasil
Background: The control of immunological alterations becomes important during in-season training, as a result of increased incidence of infectious diseases, and may assist in avoiding interruptions to training due to illness.
Objective: The aim of the present study was to evaluate 28 weeks of chronic immune modulations in female volleyball athletes.
Methods: The sample was composed of twelve athletes aged 19.47 ± 2.49 years, height 1.78 ± 0.08 cm, and body mass 66.77 ± 7.8 kg. Leukocytes, individual immune cell count, interleukin (IL)-2, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α plasma cytokines were measured during the competitive period.
Results: Results revealed that immune variables were correlated with symptoms of upper respiratory tract infections and training-load indicators, indicating a possible marker of immune status. There was a statistically significant increase in total leukocytes, neutrophils, and monocyte count, a decrease in lymphocytes, and an increase in upper respiratory tract infection symptoms, with no change in IL-2, IL-6, and TNF-α. Correlations between subjective levels of tiredness, total leukocyte count, and neutrophils with upper respiratory tract infection symptoms were observed.
Conclusion: In conclusion, these correlations can represent important tools to access the immune status of an athlete during long training periods, preventing a possible immunosuppressive status.
Keywords: immune system, leukocytes, cytokines
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