Immobilization-Enhanced Eradication of Bacterial Biofilms and in situ Antimicrobial Coating of Implant Material Surface – an in vitro Study
Received 25 September 2019
Accepted for publication 13 November 2019
Published 29 November 2019 Volume 2019:14 Pages 9351—9360
Checked for plagiarism Yes
Review by Single-blind
Peer reviewer comments 2
Editor who approved publication: Dr Thomas J. Webster
Hien A Tran,1–4 Phong A Tran1–4
1School of Chemistry, Physics and Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Science and Engineering, Queensland University of Technology (QUT), Brisbane, Queensland, Australia; 2Interface Science and Materials Engineering (ISME) Group, QUT, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia; 3Centre in Regenerative Medicine, QUT, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia; 4Institute of Health and Biomedical Innovation, Kelvin Grove, Queensland, Australia
Correspondence: Phong A Tran Tel +61 7 3138 6452
Purpose: The aim of this study was to investigate a new method of in situ biofilm treatment for infected prostheses that remove bacterial biofilm and prevent reinfection through the use of an immobilizing agent in combination with the actions of biofilm-lysing enzymes and bactericidal antimicrobials.
Methods: We investigated the combination of self-immobilization chemistry of dopamine with a biofilm-lysing enzyme, α-amylase (Am), and an antimicrobial agent, silver nitrate (Ag), to treat model Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) biofilms formed on titanium. The efficacy of biofilm removal and bacterial treatment was analyzed by crystal violet, colony-forming unit assays, confocal laser scanning microscopy, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). To confirm the in situ coating of the titanium surface with antimicrobial Ag as a strategy to prevent bacterial recolonization, SEM in secondary electron mode (SE), backscatter electron mode, (BSE) and energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDX) were used. The antimicrobial activity of the coated surface was evaluated by optical density measurement and colony-forming unit assays.
Results: Polydopamine (PDA)-assisted treatment showed approximately a 2 log reduction in recoverable CFU and a 15% increase in biofilm removal efficacy compared to treatments that had only Am or Ag. More importantly, PDA-assisted treatment was found to immobilize Ag on the surface after the treatment, rendering them resistant to bacterial recolonization.
Conclusion: Our in vitro findings suggested that this PDA-assisted treatment and the surface immobilization-enhanced treatment concept could be promising in the development of advanced treatment for implant retention surgery for an infected prosthesis.
Keywords: bacterial biofilm, in situ treatment, implants, antimicrobial, coatings
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