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Identification of Risk Factors and Cross-Reactivity of Local Anesthetics Hypersensitivity: Analysis of 14-Years’ Experience

Authors Koca Kalkan I, Koycu Buhari G, Ates H, Basa Akdogan B, Erdem Ozdedeoglu O, Aksu K, Oner Erkekol F

Received 25 November 2020

Accepted for publication 31 December 2020

Published 22 January 2021 Volume 2021:14 Pages 47—58


Checked for plagiarism Yes

Review by Single anonymous peer review

Peer reviewer comments 2

Editor who approved publication: Dr Luis Garcia-Marcos

Ilkay Koca Kalkan,1 Gozde Koycu Buhari,1 Hale Ates,1 Buket Basa Akdogan,1 Ozlem Erdem Ozdedeoglu,1 Kurtulus Aksu,1 Ferda Oner Erkekol2

1Department of Immunology and Allergy, Atatürk Chest Diseases and Thoracic Surgery Training and Research Hospital, Ankara, Turkey; 2Division of Immunology and Allergy, Department of Chest Diseases, Ankara Yıldırım Beyazıt University School of Medicine, Ankara, Turkey

Correspondence: Ilkay Koca Kalkan
Department of Immunology and Allergy, Atatürk Chest Diseases and Thoracic Surgery Training and Research Hospital, Sanatoryum Cad, Keçiören, Ankara 06280, Turkey
Tel +90 505 3117710
Fax +90 312 3552110

Purpose: Local anesthetics (LA) are widely used and adverse drug reactions (ADR) occur in 2.5– 10%, but hypersensitivity reactions are rare (ranging between 0% and 4.3%). Risk is so overestimated causing too many allergy clinic referrals. There are limited and also conflicting results over the management of LA allergy. We aimed to find out who should be referred to an allergy clinic for a LA allergy testing, to define the subjects with an increased risk of LA allergy and to assess the need for testing for identifying alternative LA.
Patients and Methods: We performed a retrospective study of patients referred to our clinic for diagnostic workup of LA hypersensitivity from 2006 to 2020.
Results: In our cohort of 398 patients, tests were positive in 14 (3.52%) of them. Personal history of ADR with LA was the only independent risk factor for positive test (RR=4.007, p=0.033). Presence of generalized cutaneous symptoms and hypotension during past reaction were independent predictors of positive test (RR=9.043, p=0.021 and RR=10.445, p=0.038, respectively). The negative predictive value of intradermal test at dilution of 1:100 for immediate-type reaction was high (97.56%). Also, we demonstrated cross-reactivity within the amide-group LAs and co-occurrence of immediate- and delayed-type reactions.
Conclusion: Only patients with an LA-induced ADR should be referred to an allergy clinic. History of generalized cutaneous symptoms and/or hypotension during the reaction may define subjects with an increased risk of LA allergy. A stepwise test procedure may start with skin tests especially for these patients with increased risk factors. In presence of LA allergy, alternative LA should always be confirmed by performing a challenge test.

Keywords: intradermal tests, local anesthetics, drug hypersensitivity, skin tests, risk factors, prick tests

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