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Identification of key genes and specific pathways potentially involved in androgen-independent, mitoxantrone-resistant prostate cancer

Authors Zhu S, Jiang LL, Wang LY, Wang LL, Zhang C, Ma Y, Huang T

Received 7 July 2018

Accepted for publication 16 November 2018

Published 3 January 2019 Volume 2019:11 Pages 419—430


Checked for plagiarism Yes

Review by Single-blind

Peer reviewer comments 3

Editor who approved publication: Dr Rituraj Purohit

Sha Zhu,1 Lili Jiang,1,2 Liuyan Wang,3 Lingli Wang,1 Cong Zhang,1 Yu Ma,1 Tao Huang4

1Department of Immunology, Collaborative Innovation Center of Cancer Chemoprevention, College of Basic Medical Sciences, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou, Henan, China; 2Department of Basic Medicine, School of Nursing, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou, Henan, China; 3Department of Medicine, The Third People’s Hospital of Zhengzhou, Zhengzhou, Henan, China; 4Oncological Surgery, Cancer Hospital Affiliated to Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou, Henan, China

Background: Resistance to mitoxantrone (MTX), an anthracenedione antineoplastic agent used in advanced and metastatic androgen-refractory prostate cancer (PCa), seriously limits therapeutic success.
Methods: Xenografts from two human PCa cell lines (VCaP and CWR22) were established in male severe combined immunodeficiency mice, and MTX was administered, with or without concurrent castration, three times a week until tumors relapsed. Microarray technology was used to screen for differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in androgen-independent, MTX-resistant PCa xenografts. Gene expression profiles of MTX-treatment xenografts and their respective parental cell lines were performed using an Agilent whole human genome oligonucleotide microarray and analyzed using Ingenuity Pathway Analysis software.
Results: A total of 636 genes were differentially expressed (fold change ≥1.5; P<0.05) in MTX-resistant castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) xenografts. Of these, 18 were selected to be validated and showed that most of these genes exhibited a transcriptional profile similar to that seen in the microarray (Pearson’s r=0.87). Western blotting conducted with a subset of genes deregulated in MTX-resistant CRPC tumors was shown through network analysis to be involved in androgen synthesis, drug efflux, ATP synthesis, and vascularization.
Conclusion: The present data provide insight into the genetic alterations underlying MTX resistance in androgen-independent PCa and highlight potential targets to improve therapeutic outcomes.

Keywords: castration-resistant prostate cancer, gene expression profiling, drug resistance, differentially expressed genes

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