Hypomagnesemia in diabetes patients: comparison of serum and intracellular measurement of responses to magnesium supplementation and its role in inflammation
Received 16 March 2018
Accepted for publication 17 April 2018
Published 2 August 2018 Volume 2018:11 Pages 389—400
Checked for plagiarism Yes
Review by Single-blind
Peer reviewers approved by Dr Amy Norman
Peer reviewer comments 2
Editor who approved publication: Professor Ming-Hui Zou
Nadia Zghoul,1 Nada Alam-Eldin,1 Ivan Tong Mak,2 Burton Silver,3 William B Weglicki2
1Clinical Research Unit, Dasman Diabetes Institute, Dasman, Kuwait, Kuwait; 2Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Medicine, George Washington University, Washington, DC, USA; 3Intracellular Diagnostics, Inc.®, Medford, OR, USA
Purpose: In this clinical trial, we assessed the efficacy of magnesium (Mg) supplementation in hypomagnesemic type 2 diabetes patients in restoring serum and intracellular Mg levels. The study had two coprimary end points: the change in serum and intracellular Mg level between baseline and after 3 months of supplementation. We compared the efficacy with regard to lowering hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), C-reactive protein (CRP), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and 8-isoprostane as secondary end points.
Patients and methods: In an open-label trial, 47 hypomagnesemic type 2 diabetes patients were administered 336 mg Mg daily. At baseline and after 3 months, serum, cellular Mg, and inflammation biomarkers were measured. For intracellular Mg levels, sublingual epithelial cells were analyzed by analytical scanning electron microscopy using computerized elemental X-ray analysis. Blood samples were analyzed for Mg, creatinine, HbA1c, and CRP. Systemic inflammatory markers including TNF-α and the oxidative stress marker 8-isoprostane were determined using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.
Results: Mg supplementation significantly increased the intracellular and serum levels. Statistically clinical improvement in HbA1c and CRP levels was not observed, but significant decreases in TNF-α as well as in 8-isoprostane were found.
Conclusion: A feasible clinical method for the assessment of intracellular Mg was demonstrated in tissue samples obtained noninvasively, providing evidence for potential clinical translation of this method to routinely determine intracellular Mg concentration.
Keywords: hypomagnesemia, type 2 diabetes, intracellular magnesium, elemental X-ray analysis
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