Hypertension, poor glycemic control, and microalbuminuria in Cuban Americans with type 2 diabetes
Gustavo G Zarini1, Joel C Exebio1, Deva Gundupalli1, Subrata Nath2, Fatma G Huffman1
1Florida International University, Robert R Stempel School of Public Health, Department of Dietetics and Nutrition, Miami, Florida, USA; 2Department of Medicine, University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, San Antonio, Texas, USA
Purpose: To investigate to what degree the presence of hypertension (HTN) and poor glycemic control (GC) influences the likelihood of having microalbuminuria (MAU) among Cuban Americans with type 2 diabetes (T2D).
Methods: A cross-sectional study conducted in Cuban Americans (n = 179) with T2D. Participants were recruited from a randomly generated mailing list purchased from KnowledgeBase Marketing, Inc. Blood pressure (BP) was measured twice and averaged using an adult size cuff. Glycosylated hemoglobin (A1c) levels were measured from whole blood samples with the Roche Tina-quant method. First morning urine samples were collected from each participant to determine MAU by a semiquantitative assay (ImmunoDip).
Results: MAU was present in 26% of Cuban Americans with T2D. A significantly higher percentage of subjects with MA had HTN (P = 0.038) and elevated A1C (P = 0.002) than those with normoalbuminuria. Logistic regression analysis showed that after controlling for covariates, subjects with poor GC were 6.76 times more likely to have MAU if they had hypertension compared with those without hypertension (P = 0.004; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.83, 23.05).
Conclusion: The clinical significance of these findings emphasizes the early detection of MAU in this Hispanic subgroup combined with BP and good GC, which are fundamentals in preventing and treating diabetes complications and improving individuals’ renal and cardiovascular outcomes.
Keywords: blood pressure, A1c, kidney function, cardiovascular disease, Hispanics
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