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Human Endogenous Retroviruses in Clear Cell Renal Cell Carcinoma: Biological Functions and Clinical Values

Authors Cao W, Kang R, Xiang Y, Hong J

Received 23 April 2020

Accepted for publication 13 July 2020

Published 7 August 2020 Volume 2020:13 Pages 7877—7885


Checked for plagiarism Yes

Review by Single-blind

Peer reviewer comments 2

Editor who approved publication: Prof. Dr. Takuya Aoki

Wenjun Cao,1 Ran Kang,2 Yining Xiang,1 Jidong Hong1

1Department of Oncology, Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan, People’s Republic of China; 2Department of Urology, The First Affiliated Hospital of University of South China, Hengyang, Hunan, People’s Republic of China

Correspondence: Jidong Hong Department of Oncology
Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, 87 Xiangya Road, Changsha, Hunan Province 410008, People’s Republic of China

Abstract: Human endogenous retroviruses (HERVs) form an important part of the human genome, commonly losing their coding ability and exhibiting only rare expression in healthy tissues to promote the stability of the genome. However, overexpression of HERVs has been observed in various malignant tumors, including clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC), and may be closely correlated with tumorigenesis and progression. HERVs may activate the interferon (IFN) signaling pathway by a viral mimicry process to enhance antitumor immune responses. There is increasing interest in the diagnostic and prognostic value of HERVs in cancers, and they may be candidate targets for tumor immunotherapy. The review will introduce the biological functions of HERVs in ccRCC and their clinical value, especially in regard to immunotherapy.

Keywords: clear cell renal cell carcinoma, human endogenous retroviruses, immunotherapy, long terminal repeat, biomarker

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