How are patients with type 2 diabetes and renal disease monitored and managed? Insights from the observational OREDIA study
Alfred Penfornis,1 Jean Frédéric Blicklé,2 Béatrice Fiquet,3 Stéphane Quéré,4 Sylvie Dejager3
1Department of Endocrinology-Metabolism and Diabetology-Nutrition, Jean Minjoz Hospital, University of Franche-Comté, Besançon, France; 2Department of Internal Medicine and Diabetology, Strasbourg University Hospital, Strasbourg, France; 3Clinical Affairs, Novartis Pharma SAS, Rueil-Malmaison, France; 4BioStatistics, Novartis Pharma SAS, Rueil-Malmaison, France
Background and aim: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is frequent in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), and therapeutic management of diabetes is more challenging in patients with renal impairment (RI). The place of metformin is of particular interest since most scientific societies now recommend using half the dosage in moderate RI and abstaining from use in severe RI, while the classic contraindication with RI has not been removed from the label. This study aimed to assess the therapeutic management, in particular the use of metformin, of T2DM patients with CKD in real life.
Methods: This was a French cross-sectional observational study: 3,704 patients with T2DM diagnosed for over 1 year and pharmacologically treated were recruited in two cohorts (two-thirds were considered to have renal disease [CKD patients] and one-third were not [non-CKD patients]) by 968 physicians (81% general practitioners) in 2012.
Results: CKD versus non-CKD patients were significantly older with longer diabetes history, more diabetic complications, and less strict glycemic control (mean glycated hemoglobin [HbA1c] 7.5% versus 7.1%; 25% of CKD patients had HbA1c ≥8% versus 15% of non-CKD patients). Fifteen percent of CKD patients had severe RI, and 66% moderate RI. Therapeutic management of T2DM was clearly distinct in CKD, with less use of metformin (62% versus 86%) but at similar mean daily doses (~2 g/d). Of patients with severe RI, 33% were still treated with metformin, at similar doses. For other oral anti-diabetics, a distinct pattern of use was seen across renal function (RF): use of sulfonylureas (32%, 31%, and 20% in normal RF, moderate RI, and severe RI, respectively) and DPP4-i (dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors) (41%, 36%, and 25%, respectively) decreased with RF, while that of glinides increased (8%, 14%, and 18%, respectively). CKD patients were more frequently treated with insulin (40% versus 16% of non-CKD patients), and use of insulin increased with deterioration of RF (19%, 39%, and 61% of patients with normal RF, moderate RI, and severe RI, respectively). Treatment was modified at the end of the study-visit in 34% of CKD patients, primarily to stop or reduce metformin. However, metformin was stopped in only 40% of the severe RI patients.
Conclusion: Despite a fairly good detection of CKD in patients with T2DM, RI was insufficiently taken into account for adjusting anti-diabetic treatment.
Keywords: therapeutic management, metformin, sulfonylureas, renal disease, type 2 diabetes
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