History and evolution of antibiotic resistance in coagulase-negative staphylococci: Susceptibility profiles of new anti-staphylococcal agents
Authors Joseph F John, Alexander M Harvin
Published 15 January 2008 Volume 2007:3(6) Pages 1143—1152
Joseph F John1,2, Alexander M Harvin1
1Ralph H. Johnson Department of Veterans Affairs Medical Center, 2Departments of Medicine and Microbiology and Immunology, Medical University of South Carolina,
Charleston, SC, USA
Abstract: Coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS) are a heterogenous group of Gram-positive cocci that are widespread commensals among mammalia. Unlike their coagulase-positive counterpart, Staphylococcus aureus, CNS produce few virulence patterns and normally refrain from invading tissue. Yet, not only can CNS cause infections in normal host tissue, but modern medicine has also seen their rise as opportunists that display adherence to medical device materials to produce a protective biofilm. CNS have historically been more resistant to antimicrobials, including the β-lactam antibiotics, than S. aureus and some hospitals reveal rates of oxacillin resistance in CNS approaching 90%. Cross resistance to non-β-lactam agents has been a recurrent theme over the past 40 years in the CNS. Thus, there has been a pressing need for newer antimicrobial agents with good antistaphylococcal activity. Those new agents tend to have excellent antistaphylococcal activity include daptomycin, linezolid, oritavancin, telavancin, tigecycline, dalbavancin, new quinolones, and ceftibiprole, several of which have unique mechanisms of action. The MIC90 for these new compounds typically ranges from 0.5–4 µg/mL. Staphylococcal biofilm formation is quite common in CNS infections and markedly increases the MIC for most older antimicrobials. Several of the newer agents offer some promise of penetration of biofilm to inhibit or kill adherent staphylococci. CNS will likely remain a major cause of infections in the modern age, evolve further antimicrobial resistance mechanisms, and require development of newer antimicrobials for curative therapy.
Keywords: coagulase-negative staphylococcus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Staphylococcus haemolyticus, Staphylococcus lugdenesis, biofilm, new antibiotics, antibiotic resistance