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Hindi Version of Addenbrooke’s Cognitive Examination III: Distinguishing Cognitive Impairment Among Older Indians at the Lower Cut-Offs

Authors Bajpai S, Upadhyay A, Sati H, Pandey RM, Chaterjee P, Dey AB

Received 3 January 2020

Accepted for publication 13 February 2020

Published 5 March 2020 Volume 2020:15 Pages 329—339


Checked for plagiarism Yes

Review by Single anonymous peer review

Peer reviewer comments 2

Editor who approved publication: Dr Richard Walker

Swati Bajpai, 1 Ashish Upadhyay, 2 Hemchand Sati, 2 RM Pandey, 2 Prasun Chaterjee, 1 AB Dey 1

1Department of Geriatric Medicine, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India; 2Biostatistics, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India

Correspondence: AB Dey
Department of Geriatric Medicine, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi 110029, India
Tel +91 11 2659 3639
Email [email protected]

Background: Screening and diagnostic tests provide an objective measure of cognitive performance and also aid in distinguishing mild cognitive impairment (MCI) from major neurocognitive disorder (MNCD). Further, when such tests are culturally and educationally unbiased, it strengthens their diagnostic utility. This study aimed to validate the Hindi version of Addenbrooke’s Cognitive Examination III (ACE-III) in Indian older adults and compare its validity with the Hindi Mini-Mental State Examination (HMSE).
Methods: A sample of 412 consenting older adults visiting a memory clinic was recruited into the study. They were categorized into three groups: healthy controls (n=222), MCI (n=70), and MNCD (n=120). The complete clinical protocol was followed. Hindi ACE-III and HMSE were administered and were statistically analyzed.
Results: The optimal cut-off values to detect MCI and MNCD with ACE-III were 71 and 62 (AUC: 0.849 and 0.884), respectively, which were slightly higher than with HMSE (AUC: 0.822, 0.861). Education- and age-stratified cut-offs were also computed.
Conclusion: Hindi ACE-III has good discriminating power at lower cut-offs than the standard scores in differentiating between MCI and MNCD.

Keywords: ACE-III, Hindi, India, dementia, mild cognitive impairment

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