Higher diversity in fungal species discriminates children with type 1 diabetes mellitus from healthy control
Authors Kowalewska B, Zorena K, Szmigiero-Kawko M, WÄ…ĹĽ P, MyĹ›liwiec M
Received 8 October 2015
Accepted for publication 17 February 2016
Published 21 April 2016 Volume 2016:10 Pages 591—599
Checked for plagiarism Yes
Review by Single-blind
Peer reviewers approved by Dr Colin Mak
Peer reviewer comments 3
Editor who approved publication: Dr Johnny Chen
Beata Kowalewska,1 Katarzyna Zorena,2 MaĹ‚gorzata Szmigiero-Kawko,3 Piotr WÄ…ĹĽ,4 MaĹ‚gorzata MyĹ›liwiec3
1Department of Tropical Medicine and Epidemiology, Institute of Maritime and Tropical Medicine, 2Department of Immunology and Environmental Microbiology, 3Clinic of Paediatrics, Diabetology and Endocrinology, 4Department of Nuclear Medicine, Medical University of GdaĹ„sk, GdaĹ„sk, Poland
Objective: To conduct qualitative and quantitative assessment of yeast-like fungi in the feces of children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) with respect to their metabolic control and duration of the disease.
Materials and methods: The studied materials included samples of fresh feces collected from 53 children and adolescents with T1DM. Control group included 30 age- and sex-matched healthy individuals. Medical history was taken and physical examination was conducted in the two study arms. Prevalence of the yeast-like fungi in the feces was determined as well as their amounts, species diversity, drug susceptibility, and enzymatic activity.
Results: The yeast-like fungi were found in the samples of feces from 75.4% of T1DM patients and 70% controls. In the group of T1DM patients, no correlation was found between age (Rs=0.253, P=0.068), duration of diabetes (Rs=−0.038, P=0.787), or body mass index (Rs=0.150, P=0.432) and the amount of the yeast-like fungi isolated in the feces. Moreover, no correlation was seen between the amount of the yeast-like fungi and glycated hemoglobin (Rs=0.0324, P=0.823), systolic blood pressure (Rs=0.102, P=0.483), or diastolic blood pressure (Rs=0.271, P=0.345).
Conclusion: Our research has shown that children and adolescents with T1DM show higher species diversity of the yeast-like fungi, with Candida albicans being significantly less prevalent versus control subjects. Moreover, fungal species in patients with T1DM turn out to be more resistant to antifungal treatment.
Keywords: children, diabetes mellitus type 1, yeast-like fungi, drug susceptibility, metabolic control, duration of the disease
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