Back to Journals » Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment » Volume 11

High prevalence of sleep and mood disorders in dry eye patients: survey of 1,000 eye clinic visitors

Authors Ayaki M, Kawashima M, Negishi K, Tsubota K

Received 24 January 2015

Accepted for publication 26 February 2015

Published 31 March 2015 Volume 2015:11 Pages 889—894


Checked for plagiarism Yes

Review by Single anonymous peer review

Peer reviewer comments 4

Editor who approved publication: Professor Wai Kwong Tang

Masahiko Ayaki, Motoko Kawashima, Kazuno Negishi, Kazuo Tsubota

Department of Ophthalmology, Keio University School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan

Purpose: We aimed to explore the prevalence of probable sleep and mood disorders in eye clinic visitors.
Methods: This was a cross-sectional study. The participants were outpatients at six eye clinics from January through March, 2014. Outpatients were invited to complete a questionnaire containing the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). A final diagnosis was made, and patients were classified into six diagnostic groups. The main outcome measures were the scores of the PSQI and HADS among the diagnostic groups.
Results: A total 1,000 outpatients participated, and 730 patients (mean age 59.5±19.0 years; 487 females) were analyzed after exclusion of children and patients diagnosed with healthy eyes, acute injury, or unilateral pseudophakia. The mean PSQI and HADS scores across all patients were 5.3±3.1 and 9.2±6.2, respectively. For the diagnostic groups, the mean PSQI and HADS scores, respectively, were 5.7±3.3 and 10.2±6.0 for dry eye (n=247), 5.4±3.2 and 9.2±5.7 for bilateral cataracts (n=159), 5.3±3.3 and 8.0±5.3 for bilateral pseudophakia (n=99), and, 5.0±3.1 and 9.8±6.6 for glaucoma (n=109). Overall, 37.3% of patients were poor sleepers (PSQI ≥6), and 45.5% had possible mood disorders (HADS ≥10). Stepwise regression analysis revealed that the PSQI and HADS scores were significantly correlated with both age (P<0.05) and the presence of dry eye (P<0.05).
Conclusion: The prevalence of sleep and mood disorders was significantly higher in patients with dry eye. The present results suggest consultation-liaison psychiatry services may be beneficial among eye disease patients.

Keywords: depression, anxiety, cataract, liaison psychiatry, glaucoma

Creative Commons License This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited. The full terms of this license are available at and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution - Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License. By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed. For permission for commercial use of this work, please see paragraphs 4.2 and 5 of our Terms.

Download Article [PDF]  View Full Text [HTML][Machine readable]