Back to Journals » Cancer Management and Research » Volume 11

High prevalence of secondary bladder cancer in men on radiotherapy for prostate cancer: evidence from a meta-analysis

Authors Zhao S, Xie Q, Yang R, Wang J, Zhang C, Luo L, Zhu Z, Liu Y, Li E, Zhao Z

Received 30 August 2018

Accepted for publication 13 November 2018

Published 10 January 2019 Volume 2019:11 Pages 587—598


Checked for plagiarism Yes

Review by Single-blind

Peer reviewer comments 3

Editor who approved publication: Dr Chien-Feng Li

Shankun Zhao,1,* Qiang Xie,2,* Redian Yang,1,* Jiamin Wang,1 Chaofeng Zhang,1 Lianmin Luo,1 Zhiguo Zhu,1 Yangzhou Liu,1 Ermao Li,1 Zhigang Zhao1

1Department of Urology and Andrology, Minimally Invasive Surgery Center, Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Urology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou Medical University, Guangzhou, Guangdong, China; 2Department of Reproduction, Southern Medical University Affiliate Dongguan People’s Hospital, Dongguan, China

*These authors contributed equally to this work

Objective: To assess whether radiotherapy (RT) for prostate cancer (PCa) was a risk factor for secondary bladder cancer (BLCa) through a meta-analysis.
Materials and methods: The MEDLINE, Embase, and the Cochrane Library were systematically searched for all studies investigating the risk of BLCa in patients with RT. The association between RT and risk of BLCa was summarized using hazard ratio with a 95%CI. The protocol for this meta-analysis is available from PROSPERO (CRD42018090075).
Results: Overall, 619,479 participants (age: 57–79 years) were included from 15 studies, 206,852 of whom were patients who received RT. Synthesis of results indicated that RT was significantly associated with an increased risk of BLCa compared with the risk in those who received radical prostatectomy or non-RT (overall HR=1.6, 95%CI: 1.33–1.92, P<0.001). The results were consistent when restricted to a 5-year lag period (HR=1.84, 95%CI: 1.26–2.69, P=0.002) and multivariable adjustment (HR=1.96, 95%CI: 1.47–2.62, P<0.001), but not for 10-year lag period (HR=1.93, 95%CI: 0.9– 4.16, P=0.093) and brachytherapy subgroup (HR=1.33, 95%CI: 0.87–2.05, P=0.188). The GRADE-profiler revealed that the rate of events of BLCa on average in the RT-patients and the non-RT control was 2,462/183,669 (1.3%) and 4,263/382,761(1.1%), respectively; the overall quality of the evidence was low.
Conclusion: Patients who received RT for PCa was associated with higher risks of developing secondary BLCa compared to those unexposed to RT, but the absolute effect was low.

prostate cancer, radiation, radiotherapy, secondary bladder cancer, radical prostatectomy

Creative Commons License This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited. The full terms of this license are available at and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution - Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License. By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed. For permission for commercial use of this work, please see paragraphs 4.2 and 5 of our Terms.

Download Article [PDF]  View Full Text [HTML][Machine readable]