High prevalence of pain among adult HIV-infected patients at University of Gondar Hospital, Northwest Ethiopia
Authors Azagew AW, Woreta HK, Tilahun AD, Anlay DZ
Received 5 May 2017
Accepted for publication 13 September 2017
Published 13 October 2017 Volume 2017:10 Pages 2461—2469
Checked for plagiarism Yes
Review by Single-blind
Peer reviewers approved by Dr Colin Mak
Peer reviewer comments 3
Editor who approved publication: Dr Katherine Hanlon
Abere Woretaw Azagew,1 Hiwot Kassa Woreta,1 Ambaye Dejen Tilahun,2 Degefaye Zelalem Anlay3
1Department of Medical Nursing, 2Emergency and Critical Nurse Unit, 3Community Health Unit, College of Medicine and Health Science, University of Gondar, Gondar, Ethiopia
Background: HIV/AIDS are pressing global health problems. Pain is a common symptom reported by patients living with HIV/AIDS. The exact cause of pain in HIV patients has not been thoroughly described, but it may, due to a symptom of HIV itself, result from opportunistic infections, as a side effect of antiretroviral drugs, concurrent neoplasia or other causes. In addition, pain perception of HIV-infected patients is highly variable and may vary based on cultural context and patient demographics. In Ethiopia, there is insufficient evidence on the prevalence and factors associated with HIV-related pain.
Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 422 adult HIV-infected patients at Gondar University Hospital antiretroviral care clinic from March 1 to May 1, 2016. Systematic random sampling was used to select study participants. A pretested interviewer-administered questionnaire and a standardized medical record data abstraction tool were used to collect data. A short form brief pain inventory tool was used to measure the outcome. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression models were fitted to identify factors associated with pain among adult HIV patients.
Results: The prevalence of pain was found to be 51.2% (95% CI: 46.4%–55.9%). Headache (17.9%), abdominal pain (15.6%), and backache (13.3%) were the most common symptoms of study participants. Being female (adjusted odds ratio [aOR]=1.8, 95% CI: 1.1–2.9); regular alcohol intake (aOR=3.3, 95% CI: 1.5–7.2); baseline World Health Organization clinical disease stage: II (aOR=2.5, 95% CI: 1.2–4.9), III (aOR=2, 95%, CI: 1.1–3.6), and IV (aOR=2.4, 95% CI: 1.1–5.3); and the presence of a chronic comorbid condition (aOR=5.9, 95% CI: 2.1–16.7) were significantly associated with pain.
Conclusion: Adult HIV patients in this sample reported a high level of chronic pain. Health-care providers should better implement a routine pain assessment among HIV-positive patients to alleviate their suffering.
Keywords: human immunodeficiency virus, acquired immune deficiency syndrome, sub-saharan Africa, Ethiopia, pain, prevalence
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