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High Blood Eosinophil and YKL-40 Levels, as Well as Low CXCL9 Levels, are Associated with Increased Readmission in Patients with Acute Exacerbation of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

Authors Peng J, Yu Q, Fan S, Chen X, Tang R, Wang D, Qi D

Received 4 December 2020

Accepted for publication 4 March 2021

Published 26 March 2021 Volume 2021:16 Pages 795—806

DOI https://doi.org/10.2147/COPD.S294968

Checked for plagiarism Yes

Review by Single anonymous peer review

Peer reviewer comments 2

Editor who approved publication: Dr Richard Russell


Junnan Peng, Qian Yu, Shulei Fan, Xingru Chen, Rui Tang, Daoxin Wang, Di Qi

Department of Respiratory Medicine, Second Affiliated Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing, People’s Republic of China

Correspondence: Daoxin Wang; Di Qi
Department of Respiratory Medicine, Second Affiliated Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, No. 76 Linjiang Road, Yuzhong District, Chongqing, 400010, People’s Republic of China
Email [email protected]; [email protected]

Background: Readmission after hospital discharge is common among patients with acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (AECOPD). Predictive biomarkers of readmission would facilitate stratification strategies and individualized prognosis. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the utility of type 2 biomarkers (eosinophils, periostin, and YKL-40) and a type 1 biomarker (CXCL9) in predicting readmission events in patients with AECOPD.
Methods: This is a prospective observational study design. Blood levels of eosinophils, periostin, YKL-40, and CXCL9 were measured at admission. The clinical outcomes were 12-month COPD-related readmission, time to COPD-related readmission, and number of 12-month COPD-related readmissions. These outcomes were analyzed using logistic and Cox regression models and Spearman’s rank test.
Results: A total of 123 patients were included, of whom 51 had experienced at least one readmission for AECOPD. High levels of eosinophils (≥ 200 cells/μL or 2% of the total white blood cell count, adjusted odds ratio [aOR] =3.138, P=0.009) and YKL-40 (≥ 14.5 ng/mL, aOR =2.840, P=0.015), as well as low CXCL9 levels (≤ 30.1 ng/mL, aOR =2.551, P=0.028), were associated with an increased COPD-related readmission. The highest relative readmission rate was observed in patients with both high eosinophil and YKL-40 levels. Moreover, high eosinophil and YKL-40 levels were associated with a shorter time to first COPD-related readmission and an increased number of 12-month COPD-related readmissions.
Conclusion: High blood eosinophil and YKL-40 levels, as well as low CXCL9 levels, have predictive utility for the 12-month COPD-related readmission rate. Using eosinophils and YKL-40 together allows more precise identification of patients at high risk of COPD-related readmission.

Keywords: COPD, exacerbation, readmission, biomarker, prospective observational

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