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Hidden costs of antiretroviral treatment: the public health efficiency of drug packaging

Authors Andreu-Crespo A, Llibre J, Cardona-Peitx G, Sala-Piñol F, Clotet B, Bonafont-Pujol X

Received 21 April 2015

Accepted for publication 19 June 2015

Published 5 August 2015 Volume 2015:9 Pages 4287—4290

DOI https://doi.org/10.2147/DDDT.S87075

Checked for plagiarism Yes

Review by Single-blind

Peer reviewers approved by Dr Sridhar Radhakrishnan

Peer reviewer comments 3

Editor who approved publication: Professor Shu-Feng Zhou


Video abstract presented by Àngels Andreu-Crespo

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Àngels Andreu-Crespo,1,* Josep M Llibre,2,3,* Glòria Cardona-Peitx,1 Ferran Sala-Piñol,1 Bonaventura Clotet,2,4 Xavier Bonafont-Pujol1

1Pharmacy Department, 2HIV Unit and “Lluita contra la SIDA” Foundation, University Hospital Germans Trias i Pujol, Badalona, 3Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, 4Universitat de Vic-Universitat Central de Catalunya (UVIC-UCC), Vic, Barcelona, Spain

*These authors contributed equally to the work

Abstract: While the overall percentage of unused antiretroviral medicines returned to the hospital pharmacy is low, their cost is quite high. Adverse events, treatment failure, pharmacokinetic interactions, pregnancy, or treatment simplification are common reasons for unplanned treatment changes. Socially inefficient antiretroviral packages prevent the reuse of drugs returned to the hospital pharmacy. We defined antiretroviral package categories based on the excellence of drug packaging and analyzed the number of pills and costs of drugs returned during a period of 1 year in a hospital-based HIV unit attending to 2,413 treated individuals. A total of 6,090 pills (34% of all returned antiretrovirals) – with a cost of 47,139.91€ – would be totally lost, mainly due to being packed up in the lowest efficiency packages. Newer treatments are packaged in low-excellence categories of packages, thus favoring the maintenance of these hidden costs in the near future. Therefore, costs of this low-efficiency drug packaging, where medication packages are started but not completed, in high-cost medications are substantial and should be properly addressed. Any improvement in the packaging by the manufacturer, and favoring the choice of drugs supplied through efficient packages (when efficacy, toxicity, and convenience are similar), should minimize the treatment expenditures paid by national health budgets.

Keywords: antiretroviral treatment, cost efficacy, drug packaging, treatment change

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