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Hereditary leiomyomatosis and renal cell carcinoma

Authors Schmidt L, Linehan W

Received 13 March 2014

Accepted for publication 15 April 2014

Published 20 June 2014 Volume 2014:7 Pages 253—260

DOI https://doi.org/10.2147/IJNRD.S42097

Checked for plagiarism Yes

Review by Single-blind

Peer reviewer comments 3


Laura S Schmidt,1,2 W Marston Linehan1

1Urologic Oncology Branch, Center for Cancer Research, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, USA; 2Basic Science Program, Leidos Biomedical Research Inc., Frederick National Laboratory for Cancer Research, Frederick, MD, USA

Abstract: Hereditary leiomyomatosis and renal cell carcinoma (HLRCC) is an autosomal-dominant hereditary syndrome, which is caused by germline mutations in the FH gene that encodes the tricarboxylic acid cycle enzyme fumarate hydratase (FH). HLRCC patients are predisposed to develop cutaneous leiomyomas, multiple, symptomatic uterine fibroids in young women resulting in early hysterectomies, and early onset renal tumors with a type 2 papillary morphology that can progress and metastasize, even when small. Since HLRCC-associated renal tumors can be more aggressive than renal tumors in other hereditary renal cancer syndromes, caution is warranted, and surgical intervention is recommended rather than active surveillance. At-risk members of an HLRCC family who test positive for the familial germline FH mutation should undergo surveillance by annual magnetic resonance imaging from the age of 8 years. Biochemical studies have shown that FH-deficient kidney cancer is characterized by a metabolic shift to aerobic glycolysis. It is hoped that through ongoing clinical trials evaluating targeted molecular therapies, an effective form of treatment for HLRCC-associated kidney cancer will be developed that will offer an improved prognosis for individuals affected with HLRCC-associated kidney cancer.

Keywords: hereditary leiomyomatosis and renal cell carcinoma, HLRCC, FH mutation, type 2 papillary RCC

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