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Hepatocellular carcinoma: current trends in worldwide epidemiology, risk factors, diagnosis, and therapeutics

Authors Dhanasekaran R, Limaye A, Cabrera R

Received 12 October 2011

Accepted for publication 14 January 2012

Published 8 May 2012 Volume 2012:4 Pages 19—37

DOI https://doi.org/10.2147/HMER.S16316

Review by Single-blind

Peer reviewer comments 2


Renumathy Dhanasekaran, Alpna Limaye, Roniel Cabrera

Division of Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition, Department of Medicine, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, USA

Abstract: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a common malignancy in developing countries and its incidence is on the rise in the developing world. The epidemiology of this cancer is unique since its risk factors, including hepatitis C and B, have been clearly established. The current trends in the shifting incidence of HCC in different regions of the world can be explained partly by the changing prevalence of hepatitis. Early detection offers the only hope for curative treatment for patients with HCC, hence effective screening strategies for high-risk patients is of utmost importance. Liver transplantation and surgical resection remains the cornerstone of curative treatment. But major advances in locoregional therapies and molecular-targeted therapies for the treatment of advanced HCC have occurred recently. In this review, current trends in the worldwide epidemiology, surveillance, diagnosis, standard treatments, and the emerging therapies for HCC are discussed.

Keywords: liver cancer, sorafenib, hepatitis C, TACE

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