Hepatitis B Virus Infection and Associated Factors Among Adults in Southwest Ethiopia: Community-Based Cross-Sectional Study
Received 24 April 2020
Accepted for publication 10 June 2020
Published 22 June 2020 Volume 2020:13 Pages 323—332
Checked for plagiarism Yes
Review by Single-blind
Peer reviewer comments 3
Editor who approved publication: Dr Scott Fraser
Alemayehu Sayih Belay,1 Dejene Derseh Abateneh,1,2 Sisay Shewasinad Yehualashet,1,3 Kindie Mitiku Kebede1
1Mizan Tepi University, College of Health Sciences, Mizan Aman, Ethiopia; 2Kotebe Metropolitan University, Menelik II College of Medicine and Health Sciences, Department of Medical Laboratory Sciences, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia; 3Debre Berhan University, Institute of Health Sciences, Debre Berhan, Ethiopia
Correspondence: Dejene Derseh Abateneh
Kotebe Metropolitan University, Menelik II College of Medicine and Health Sciences, Department of Medical Laboratory Sciences, P.O.Box: 3268, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia
Purpose: Ethiopia is grouped with countries with no national strategy for surveillance of viral hepatitis. Hence, data on hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection in the general population are limited. The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence and associated factors of HBV infection among adults in Southwest Ethiopia.
Materials and Methods: A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted in Southwest Ethiopia, from November 1, 2017–January 30, 2018. A total of 612 individuals were included in the study using a multistage sampling technique. A structured questionnaire was used to collect data and a whole blood sample was aseptically collected and tested for HBsAg using a commercially available rapid serological test kit. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression were employed and odds ratio with 95% confidence interval was retrieved. P-value < 0.05 was considered as statistically significant.
Results: Among 612 participants, half of them, 310 (50.7%), were in the age range of 25– 34 years. The mean age of the respondents was 32.5 [SD ± 7.5] years. Seroprevalence of HBsAg among adults was 55/612 (9.0%). Tattooing on gums (AOR=23.9, 95% CI (2.2– 26.3)), tattooing on the body (AOR=6.8, 95% CI (1.1– 43.1)), and contact with a jaundiced person (AOR=20.7, 95% CI (6.7– 63.8)) were significantly associated with seroprevalence of HBsAg.
Conclusion: Hepatitis B virus infection in adults at the community level is highly endemic. Modifiable risk factors such as tattooing on gums, tattooing on body, and contact with a jaundiced person account for the high HBV infection. Hence, behavioral education and communication programs designed to reduce HBV infection need to address these modifiable factors.
Keywords: hepatitis B virus, HBsAg, adult, Ethiopia
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