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Hemodialysis and hepatitis B vaccination: a challenge to physicians

Authors Ayub MA, Bacci MR, Fonseca FL, Chehter EZ

Received 8 November 2013

Accepted for publication 24 December 2013

Published 3 February 2014 Volume 2014:7 Pages 109—114

DOI https://doi.org/10.2147/IJGM.S57254

Checked for plagiarism Yes

Review by Single-blind

Peer reviewer comments 3

Munir Akar Ayub,1 Marcelo Rodrigues Bacci,2 Fernando Luiz Affonso Fonseca,3 Ethel Zimberg Chehter4

1Department of Infectology, 2Department of General Practice, 3Department of Morphology, 4Department of Gastroenterology, Faculdade de Medicina do ABC, Santo André-São Paulo, Brazil

Abstract: Hepatitis B is responsible for the development of half of hepatocellular carcinoma cases and is a major cause of hepatic insufficiency. The vaccine against hepatitis B virus does not exhibit the same high efficacy in patients on hemodialysis as it does in immunocompetent individuals. The medical literature recommends vaccination with four doses (40 mg each) of the hepatitis B virus vaccine before beginning hemodialysis; however, approximately one-third of hemodialysis patients do not respond to this vaccination schedule. A new serologic test should be performed each year for individuals who respond adequately, whereas a booster dose should be offered to those with antibody titers below 10 mIU/mL. In this study, we followed 83 hemodialysis patients and collected quantitative serologic measurements every 2 months over a 1-year period. We made the measurements 1 month after the vaccination period. We found that 41% of the patients had antibody titers below 10 mIU/mL (nonresponders), 21.7% had antibody titers between 10 mIU/mL and 100 mIU/mL (poor responders), and 37.3% had antibody titers higher than 100 mIU/mL (good responders). Patients with diabetes and/or hypertension exhibited worse response to vaccination. All subjects displayed decreasing antibody titers during the observation period. The group of poorly responsive patients had antibody titers below 10 mIU/mL at the 6-month follow-up period.

Keywords: hepatitis B vaccination, chronic kidney disease, hemodialysis

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