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Heart rate variability and arrhythmic patterns of 24-hour Holter electrocardiography among Nigerians with cardiovascular diseases

Authors Adebayo R, Ikwu A, Balogun M, Akintomide A, Ajayi O, Adeyeye V, Mene-Afejuku T, Bamikole O, Ogunyemi S, Ajibare A, Oketona O

Received 17 January 2015

Accepted for publication 4 March 2015

Published 29 June 2015 Volume 2015:11 Pages 353—359


Checked for plagiarism Yes

Review by Single anonymous peer review

Peer reviewer comments 2

Editor who approved publication: Dr Daniel A. Duprez

Rasaaq Ayodele Adebayo, Amanze Nkemjika Ikwu, Michael Olabode Balogun, Anthony Olubunmi Akintomide, Olufemi Eyitayo Ajayi, Victor Oladeji Adeyeye, Tuoyo Omasan Mene-Afejuku, Olaniyi James Bamikole, Suraj Adefabi Ogunyemi, Adeola Olubunmi Ajibare, Omolola Abiodun Oketona

Cardiology Unit, Department of Medicine, Obafemi Awolowo University Teaching Hospitals Complex (OAUTHC), Ile-Ife, Osun State, Nigeria

Background: Facilities for Holter electrocardiography (ECG) monitoring in many Nigerian hospitals are limited. There are few published works in Nigeria on the use of 24-hour Holter ECG in cardiac arrhythmic evaluation of patients with cardiovascular diseases.
Objective: To study the clinical indications, arrhythmic pattern, and heart rate variability (HRV) among subjects referred for 24-hour Holter ECG at our Cardiac Care Unit.
Methods: Three-hundred and ten patients (134 males and 176 females) were studied consecutively over a 48-month period using Schiller type (MT-101) Holter ECG machine.
Results: Out of the 310 patients reviewed, 134 were males (43.2%) and 176 were females (56.8%). The commonest indication for Holter ECG was palpitation followed by syncope in 71 (23%) and 49 (15.8%) of subjects, respectively. Premature ventricular complex and premature atrial complex were the commonest types of arrhythmia in 51.5% and 15% subjects, respectively. Ventricular arrhythmia was more prevalent in dilated cardiomyopathy patients (85.7%). The HRV of subjects with palpitation, stroke, and diabetes mellitus with autonomic neuropathy, using standard deviation of normal to normal intervals average (milliseconds), were 107.32±49.61, 79.15±49.15, and 66.50±15.54, respectively. The HRV, using standard deviation of averages of normal to normal intervals average (milliseconds), of patients with palpitation, stroke, and diabetes mellitus with autonomic neuropathy were 77.39±62.34, 57.82±37.05, and 55.50±12.71, respectively.
Conclusion: Palpitation and syncope were the commonest indications for Holter ECG among our subjects. The commonest arrhythmic patterns were premature ventricular complex and premature atrial complex, with ventricular arrhythmia being more prevalent in dilated cardiomyopathy. There was a reduction in HRV in patients with stroke and diabetic autonomic neuropathy.

Keywords: heart rate, arrhythmia, Holter electrocardiography, cardiovascular diseases, Nigerians

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