Health-Related Quality of Life Among People Living with Human Immunodeficiency Virus on Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy in Ethiopia: PROQOL-HIV Based Survey
Received 20 November 2019
Accepted for publication 23 February 2020
Published 5 March 2020 Volume 2020:11 Pages 73—86
Checked for plagiarism Yes
Review by Single-blind
Peer reviewer comments 2
Editor who approved publication: Professor Lynne Nemeth
Tsegaye Melaku, Girma Mamo, Legese Chelkeba, Tesfahun Chanie
Department of Clinical Pharmacy, School of Pharmacy, Institute of Health, Jimma University, Jimma, Ethiopia
Correspondence: Tsegaye Melaku Tel +251 91 376 5609
Background: As infection with the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) has evolved into a chronic disease, perceived health-related quality of life (HRQoL) is becoming a prominent and important patient-reported outcome measure in HIV care. This study aimed to assess HRQoL among people living with HIV on highly active antiretroviral therapy and factors associated with HRQoL in Ethiopia.
Methods: An institution-based cross-sectional study was conducted among 160 HIV–infected patients who were initiated highly active antiretroviral therapy at Jimma University Medical Center in 2016. HRQoL was assessed using the patient-reported outcome quality of life-HIV (PROQOL-HIV) measuring scale. Linear regressions were used to identify factors associated with outcome. Statistical significance was considered at p-value < 0.05.
Results: Out of a total of 160 participants, 63.13% were females. The mean (±SD) age of study participants was 41.47± 9.45 years. The median baseline CD4+ cell count was 182.00 cells/μL (IQR: 104.53– 262.40 cells/μL). The mean (±SD) score of PROQOL-HIV scale domains was 77.58 ± 15.11, 58.32 ± 7.79, 61.75± 17.95, 85.07 ± 15.67, 76.92 ± 20.52, 80.00 ± 16.83, 74.37 ± 1.47, 81.45 ± 8.17 for physical health and symptoms, emotional distress, health concerns, body change, intimate relationships, social relationships, stigma, and treatment impact domains, respectively. Second line antiretroviral therapy showed a negative effect on the quality of life, especially on the treatment impact domain (β=− 6.301). Cotrimoxazole preventive therapy had a significant positive effect on the physical health and symptoms of HIV patients (β= +8.381, p< 0.05). Advanced disease (β=− 2.709, p< 0.05), and non-communicable disease comorbidity (β=− 14.340, p< 0.001) showed a significant negative effect on physical health and symptoms.
Conclusion: Several behavioral, clinical & immunological factors were negatively associated with health-related quality of life. The double burden of chronic non-communicable disease(s) and the impact of treatment were highly significant in all dimensions of HRQoL measures. Therefore, with HRQoL emerging as a key issue for HIV–infected patients, its routine assessment and appropriate interventions at each clinic visit would be very crucial.
Keywords: human immunodeficiency virus, health-related quality of life, patient-reported outcome
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