Handgrip strength, quadriceps muscle power, and optimal shortening velocity roles in maintaining functional abilities in older adults living in a long-term care home: a 1-year follow-up study
Authors Kozicka I, Kostka T
Received 22 November 2015
Accepted for publication 17 February 2016
Published 26 May 2016 Volume 2016:11 Pages 739—747
Checked for plagiarism Yes
Review by Single-blind
Peer reviewers approved by Dr Colin Mak
Peer reviewer comments 3
Editor who approved publication: Dr Richard Walker
Izabela Kozicka, Tomasz Kostka
Department of Geriatrics, Medical University of Lodz, Lodz, Poland
Purpose: To assess the relative role of handgrip strength (HGS), quadriceps muscle power (Pmax), and optimal shortening velocity (υopt) in maintaining functional abilities (FAs) in older adults living in a long-term care home over a 1-year follow-up.
Subjects and methods: Forty-one inactive older institutionalized adults aged 69.8±9.0 years participated in this study. HGS, Pmax, υopt, cognitive function using the Mini-Mental State Examination, depressive symptoms using the Geriatric Depression Scale, nutritional status using the Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA), and physical activity (PA) using the Seven-Day Physical Activity Recall Questionnaire were assessed at baseline and at 1-year follow-up. FAs were assessed with activities of daily living (ADL), instrumental ADL, and Timed Up & Go test.
Results: Both at baseline and at follow-up, FAs were related to age, HGS, Pmax/kg, υopt, MNA, and PA. These associations were generally similar in both sexes. As revealed in multiple regression analysis, υopt was the strongest predictor of FA, followed by Pmax/kg, PA, and MNA. FA deteriorated after 1 year as measured by ADL and Timed Up & Go test. Pmax and υopt, but not HGS, also decreased significantly after 1 year. Nevertheless, 1-year changes in FAs were not related to changes in HGS, Pmax, υopt, or PA.
Conclusion: The 1-year period of physical inactivity among older institutionalized adults was found to have a negative effect on their FAs, Pmax, and υopt. The present study demonstrates that Pmax and, especially, υopt correlated with FAs of older adults more than HGS, both at baseline and at follow-up. Despite this, 1-year natural fluctuations of PA, Pmax, and υopt are not significant enough to influence FAs in inactive institutionalized older adults.
Keywords: aging, handgrip strength, institutionalization, functional status, physical activity
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