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Guidelines for adapting cognitive stimulation therapy to other cultures

Authors Aguirre E, Spector A, Orrell M

Received 4 February 2014

Accepted for publication 15 March 2014

Published 26 June 2014 Volume 2014:9 Pages 1003—1007


Checked for plagiarism Yes

Review by Single-blind

Peer reviewer comments 2

Elisa Aguirre,1,2 Aimee Spector,3 Martin Orrell1,2

1Division of Psychiatry, University College London, London, UK; 2Research and Development Department, North East London Foundation Trust, Goodmayes Hospital, Essex, UK; 3Clinical, Educational and Health Research Psychology Department, University College London, London, UK

Abstract: Cognitive stimulation therapy (CST) has been shown to be an useful and cost effective intervention that increases cognition and quality of life of people with mild to moderate dementia. It is increasing in popularity in the UK and worldwide, and a number of research teams have examined its effectiveness in other contexts and cultures. However, it is necessary to develop clear evidence-based guidelines for cultural modification of the intervention. This article describes a community-based developmental approach to adapt CST to different cultures, following the five phases of the formative method for adapting psychotherapy (FMAP), an approach that involves collaborating with service users as a first step to generate and support ideas for therapy adaptation. Examples based on clinical and practical experience are presented, along with suggestions for applying these changes in different cultural contexts.

Keywords: CST, culture, adaptation, mild to moderate dementia, dementia, FMAP

Creative Commons License This work is published by Dove Medical Press Limited, and licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License. The full terms of the License are available at The license permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

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