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Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles using Pimpinella anisum seeds: antimicrobial activity and cytotoxicity on human neonatal skin stromal cells and colon cancer cells

Authors AlSalhi M, Devanesan S, Alfuraydi A, Vishnubalaji R, Munusamy MA, Murugan K, Nicoletti M, Benelli G

Received 19 May 2016

Accepted for publication 9 July 2016

Published 6 September 2016 Volume 2016:11 Pages 4439—4449

DOI https://doi.org/10.2147/IJN.S113193

Checked for plagiarism Yes

Review by Single-blind

Peer reviewers approved by Dr Akshita Wason

Peer reviewer comments 2

Editor who approved publication: Dr Thomas J Webster


Mohamad S AlSalhi,1,2 Sandhanasamy Devanesan,1,2 Akram A Alfuraydi,3 Radhakrishnan Vishnubalaji,4 Murugan A Munusamy,3 Kadarkarai Murugan,5 Marcello Nicoletti,6 Giovanni Benelli7

1Research Chair in Laser Diagnosis of Cancers, 2Department of Physics and Astronomy, 3Department of Botany and Microbiology, College of Science, 4Stem Cell Unit, Department of Anatomy, College of Medicine, King Saud University, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia; 5Division of Entomology, Department of Zoology, School of Life Sciences, Bharathiar University, Coimbatore, India; 6Department of Environmental Biology, Sapienza University of Rome, Rome, 7Department of Agriculture, Food and Environment, University of Pisa, Pisa, Italy


Background: The present study focused on a simple and eco-friendly method for the synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) with multipurpose anticancer and antimicrobial activities.
Materials and methods:
We studied a green synthesis route to produce AgNPs by using an aqueous extract of Pimpinella anisum seeds (3 mM). Their antimicrobial activity and cytotoxicity on human neonatal skin stromal cells (hSSCs) and colon cancer cells (HT115) were assessed.
Results:
A biophysical characterization of the synthesized AgNPs was realized: the morphology of AgNPs was determined by transmission electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy, X-ray powder diffraction, and ultraviolet-vis absorption spectroscopy. Transmission electron microscopy showed spherical shapes of AgNPs of P. anisum seed extracts with a 3.2 nm minimum diameter and average diameter ranging from 3.2 to 16 nm. X-ray powder diffraction highlighted the crystalline nature of the nanoparticles, ultraviolet-vis absorption spectroscopy was used to monitor their synthesis, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy showed the main reducing groups from the seed extract. Energy dispersive spectroscopy was used to confirm the presence of elemental silver. We evaluated the antimicrobial potential of green-synthesized AgNPs against five infectious bacteria: Staphylococcus pyogenes (29213), Acinetobacter baumannii (4436), Klebsiella pneumoniae (G455), Salmonella typhi, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. In addition, we focused on the toxicological effects of AgNPs against hSSC cells and HT115 cells by using in vitro proliferation tests and cell viability assays. Among the different tested concentrations of nanoparticles, doses <10 µg showed few adverse effects on cell proliferation without variations in viability, whereas doses >10 µg led to increased cytotoxicity.
Conclusion: Overall, our results highlighted the capacity of P. anisum-synthesized AgNPs as novel and cheap bioreducing agents for eco-friendly nanosynthetical routes. The data confirm the multipurpose potential of plant-borne reducing and stabilizing agents in nanotechnology.

Keywords: antibacterial, biosafety, green nanotechnology, metal nanoparticles, Pimpinella anisum seeds, cancer

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