Golgi Protein 73 versus Alpha-Fetoprotein as a New Biomarker in Early Diagnosis of Hepatocellular Carcinoma
Received 13 March 2020
Accepted for publication 24 April 2020
Published 18 May 2020 Volume 2020:13 Pages 193—200
Checked for plagiarism Yes
Review by Single anonymous peer review
Peer reviewer comments 2
Editor who approved publication: Dr Scott Fraser
Omaima Mohamed Ali,1 Hussein Ahmed El Amin,2 Yousry Lotfy Sharkawy,1 Adnan Ahmed Mohamed Ali,3 Emad Farah Mohammed Kholef,4 Wael Abd Elgwad Elsewify1
1Internal Medicine Department, Faculty of Medicine, Aswan University, Aswan, Egypt; 2Internal Medicine Department, Faculty of Medicine, Assuit University, Assuit, Egypt; 3Tropical Medicine and Gastroenterology Department, Faculty of Medicine, Assuit University, Assuit, Egypt; 4Clinical Pathology Department, Faculty of Medicine, Aswan University, Aswan, Egypt
Correspondence: Wael Abd Elgwad Elsewify
Department of Internal Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Aswan University, Aswan 81528, Egypt
Background: Screening of early hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) diagnosis is the greatest challenge for hepatologists. Alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) is the most common non-invasive biomarker used in HCC diagnosis.
Objectives and Aims: To make a comparison between the new biomarker Golgi protein 73 (GP73) versus the standard biomarker AFP in the diagnosis of HCC.
Methods: Our study was a case–control study, and 60 patients were included in the study. They were divided into two groups: 1) HCC patients with either chronic HBV or HCV infection (n=30); and 2) non-HCC patients with HBV or HCV infection who had either chronic hepatitis or liver cirrhosis (n=30). In addition, 30 healthy volunteers were included as a control group. Patients were subjected to liver function tests, kidney function tests, serum Golgi protein 73 and AFP levels. Imaging diagnosis of HCC was done by computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) based on American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases (AASLD) practice guidelines.
Results: Statistically significant differences between groups in terms of serum AFP (p< 0.001) and GP73 (p< 0.001) were found. Non-HCC patients (chronic hepatitis and liver cirrhosis) and HCC patients had significantly higher AFP and GP73 than the control group. In addition, patients with HCC had significantly higher AFP and GP73 than chronic hepatitis and cirrhotic patients. GP73 had higher diagnostic performance than AFP. At a cut-off value of ≥ 8.4 ng/mL, GP73 yielded a sensitivity of 86.7% and specificity of 89% for the discrimination between HCC and normal populations. Similarly, at a cut-off value of ≥ 8.45 ng/mL, GP73 yielded a sensitivity of 83.3% and specificity of 84% for the discrimination between HCC patients and non-HCC patients. On the other hand, AFP at a cut-off value of ≥ 2.4 ng/mL yielded a sensitivity of 75.4% and specificity of 90% for the discrimination between HCC and normal populations; and at a cut-off value of ≥ 20.85 ng/mL, AFP yielded a sensitivity of 72.2% and specificity of 86.2% for the discrimination between HCC and non-HCC patients.
Conclusion: Golgi protein 73 is a promising and accurate biomarker for early detection of HCC.
Keywords: liver cirrhosis, HCC, AFP, Golgi protein 73
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