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Gold nanoparticles and diclofenac diethylammonium administered by iontophoresis reduce inflammatory cytokines expression in Achilles tendinitis

Authors Dohnert MB, Venâncio M, Possato JC, Zeferino RC, Dohnert LH, Zugno AI, De Souza CT, Paula MMS, Luciano TF

Received 14 August 2011

Accepted for publication 20 September 2011

Published 26 March 2012 Volume 2012:7 Pages 1651—1657

DOI https://doi.org/10.2147/IJN.S25164

Review by Single-blind

Peer reviewer comments 2

Marcelo B Dohnert1,2, Mirelli Venâncio1, Jonathann C Possato1, Rodrigo C Zeferino1, Luciana H Dohnert2, Alexandra I Zugno1, Cláudio T De Souza1, Marcos MS Paula1, Thais F Luciano1

1Postgraduation Program in Health Sciences, Programa de Pós-graduação em Ciências da Saúde PPGCS, Universidade do Extremo Sul Catarinense, Criciúma, Santa Catarina, 2Department of Physiotherapy, Universidade Luterana do Brasil, Torres, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

Introduction: Tendinitis affects a substantial number of people in several occupations involving repetitive work or direct trauma. Iontophoresis is a therapeutic alternative used in the treatment of injury during the inflammatory phase. In recent years, gold nanoparticles (GNP) have been studied due to their therapeutic anti-inflammatory capacity and as an alternative to the transport of several proteins.
Purpose: This study evaluates the therapeutic effects of iontophoresis using GNPs and diclofenac diethylammonium on inflammatory parameters in rats challenged with traumatic tendinitis.
Methods: Wistar rats were divided in three treatment groups (n = 15): (1) iontophoresis + diclofenac diethylammonium; (2) iontophoresis + GNP; and (3) iontophoresis + diclofenac diethylammonium + GNP. External control was formed by challenged tendons without treatment (n = 15). Iontophoresis was administered using 0.3 mA direct current on 1.5 cm² electrodes.
Results: The levels of both inflammatory cytokines were significantly higher in untreated challenged rats, when compared with the control (5.398 ± 234 for interleukin 1 beta and 6.411 ± 432 for tumor necrosis factor alpha), which confirms the occurrence of an inflammatory stage in injury (P < 0.05). A significant decrease was observed in expression of cytokines interleukin 1 beta in the three treatment groups, in comparison with untreated challenged tendons, although, in the group treated with diclofenac and GNP, results were similar to the control (1.732 ± 239) (P < 0.05). Concerning tumor necrosis factor alpha, only the group treated with the association diclofenac and GNPs presented decreased levels, compared with the control (3.221 ± 369) (P < 0.05).
Conclusion: The results show the efficacy of drug administration using direct current to treat tendinitis in an animal model, and the potential anti-inflammatory, carrier, and enhancing effects of GNPs in iontophoresis.

Keywords: tendinous injury, proinflammatory cytokines, electrophoresis, iontophoresis, nanoparticles

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