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Gold nanoparticles and angiogenesis: molecular mechanisms and biomedical applications

Authors Darweesh RS, Ayoub NM, Nazzal S

Received 20 July 2019

Accepted for publication 18 August 2019

Published 19 September 2019 Volume 2019:14 Pages 7643—7663


Checked for plagiarism Yes

Review by Single anonymous peer review

Peer reviewer comments 2

Editor who approved publication: Prof. Dr. Thomas J. Webster

Ruba S Darweesh,1 Nehad M Ayoub,2 Sami Nazzal3

1Department of Pharmaceutical Technology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Jordan University of Science and Technology, Irbid 22110, Jordan; 2Department of Clinical Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Jordan University of Science and Technology, Irbid 22110, Jordan; 3Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, School of Pharmacy, Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center, Dallas, TX 75235-6411, USA

Correspondence: Ruba S Darweesh
Department of Pharmaceutical Technology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Jordan University of Science and Technology, P.O.Box 3030, Irbid 22110, Jordan
Tel +962 2 720 1000 Ext 26821
Fax +962 2 720 1075

Abstract: Angiogenesis is the formation of new blood vessels from pre-existing vessels. It is a highly regulated process as determined by the interplay between pro-angiogenic and anti-angiogenic factors. Under certain conditions the balance between angiogenesis stimulators and inhibitors is altered, which results in a shift from physiological to pathological angiogenesis. Therefore, the goal of therapeutic targeting of angiogenic process is to normalize vasculature in target tissues by enhancing angiogenesis in disease conditions of reduced vascularity and blood flow, such as tissue ischemia, or alternatively to inhibit excessive and abnormal angiogenesis in disorders like cancer. Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) are special particles that are generated by nanotechnology and composed of an inorganic core containing gold which is encircled by an organic monolayer. The ability of AuNPs to alter vasculature has captured recent attention in medical literature as potential therapeutic agents for the management of pathologic angiogenesis. This review provides an overview of the effects of AuNPs on angiogenesis and the molecular mechanisms and biomedical applications associated with their effects. In addition, the main synthesis methods, physical properties, uptake mechanisms, and toxicity of AuNPs are briefly summarized.

Keywords: gold nanoparticles, angiogenesis, molecular signaling, VEGF, uptake, toxicity

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