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Glycogen–gold nanohybrid escalates the potency of silymarin

Authors Kandimalla R, Dash S, Bhowal AC, Kalita S, Talukdar NC, Kundu S, Kotoky J

Received 24 May 2017

Accepted for publication 17 July 2017

Published 25 September 2017 Volume 2017:12 Pages 7025—7038


Checked for plagiarism Yes

Review by Single-blind

Peer reviewers approved by Dr Lakshmi Kiran Chelluri

Peer reviewer comments 3

Editor who approved publication: Prof. Dr. Thomas J Webster

Raghuram Kandimalla,1 Suvakanta Dash,2 Ashim Chandra Bhowal,3 Sanjeeb Kalita,1 Narayan Chandra Talukdar,1 Sarathi Kundu,3 Jibon Kotoky1,4

1Drug Discovery Lab, Institute of Advanced Study in Science and Technology, 2Girijananda Choudhury Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, 3Soft Nano Laboratory, Institute of Advanced Study in Science and Technology, 4National Institute of Pharmaceutical Education and Research, Guwahati, India

Abstract: In this study, a glycogen–gold nanohybrid was fabricated to enhance the potency of a promising hepatoprotective agent silymarin (Sly) by improving its solubility and gut permeation. By utilizing a facile green chemistry approach, biogenic gold nanoparticles were synthesized from Annona reticulata leaf phytoconstituents in combination with Sly (SGNPs). Further, the SGNPs were aggregated in glycogen biopolymer to yield the therapeutic nanohybrids (GSGNPs). Transmission electron microscopy, UV–Vis spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy analysis confirmed the successful formation and conjugation of both SGNPs and GSGNPs. The fabricated nanohybrids showed significant protection against CCl4-induced hepatic injury in Wistar rats and maintained natural antioxidant (superoxide dismutase and catalase) levels. Animals treated with GSGNPs (10 mg/kg) and SGNPs (20 mg/kg) retained usual hepatic functions with routine levels of hepatobiliary enzymes (aspartate transferase, alanine transaminase, alkaline phosphatase, and lactate dehydrogenase) and inflammatory markers (interleukin-1β and tumor necrosis factor-α) with minimal lipid peroxidation, whereas those treated with 100 mg/kg of Sly showed the similar effect. These results were also supported by histopathology of the livers where pronounced hepatoprotection with normal hepatic physiology and negligible inflammatory infiltrate were observed. Significant higher plasma Cmax supported the enhanced bioavailability of Sly upon GSGNPs treatment compared to SGNPs and free Sly. Graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrophotometry analysis also substantiated the efficient delivery of GSGNPs over SGNPs. The fabricated therapeutic nanohybrids were also found to be biocompatible toward human erythrocytes and L929 mouse fibroblast cells. Overall, due to increased solubility, bioavailability and profuse gut absorption; GSGNPs demonstrated tenfold enhanced potency compared to free Sly.

Keywords: silymarin, Annona reticulata, glycogen–gold, nanohybrid, potency, hepatoprotection

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