Global incidence and outcome of testicular cancer
Received 23 April 2013
Accepted for publication 18 June 2013
Published 17 October 2013 Volume 2013:5(1) Pages 417—427
Checked for plagiarism Yes
Review by Single anonymous peer review
Peer reviewer comments 4
Thurkaa Shanmugalingam,1 Aspasia Soultati,2 Simon Chowdhury,2 Sarah Rudman,2 Mieke Van Hemelrijck1
1King’s College London, School of Medicine, Division of Cancer Studies, Cancer Epidemiology Group, London, UK; 2Department of Oncology, Guy’s and St Thomas’ NHS Foundation Trust, London, UK
Background: Testicular cancer is a rare tumor type accounting for 1% of malignancies in men. It is, however, the most common cancer in young men in Western populations. The incidence of testicular cancer is increasing globally, although a decline in mortality rates has been reported in Western countries. It is important to identify whether the variations in trends observed between populations are linked to genetic or environmental factors.
Methods: Age-standardized incidence rates and age-standardized mortality rates for testicular cancer were obtained for men of all ages in ten countries from the Americas, Asia, Europe, and Oceania using the Cancer Incidence in Five Continents (CI5plus) and World Health Organization (WHO) mortality databases. The annual percent change was calculated using Joinpoint regression to assess temporal changes between geographical regions.
Results: Testicular cancer age-standardized incidence rates are highest in New Zealand (7.8), UK (6.3), Australia (6.1), Sweden (5.6), USA (5.2), Poland (4.9), and Spain (3.8) per 100,000 men. India, People’s Republic of China, and Colombia had the lowest incidence (0.5, 1.3, and 2.2, respectively) per 100,000 men. The annual percent changes for overall testicular cancer incidence significantly increased in the European countries Sweden 2.4%, (2.2; 2.6); UK 2.9%, (2.2; 3.6); and Spain 5.0%, (1.7; 8.4), Australia 3.0%, (2.2; 3.7), and People’s Republic of China 3.5%, (1.9; 5.1). India had the lowest overall testicular cancer incidence -1.7%, (-2.5; -0.8). Annual percent changes for overall testicular cancer mortality rates were decreasing in all study populations, with the greatest decline observed in Sweden -4.2%, (-4.8; -3.6) and People’s Republic of China -4.9%, (-6.5; -3.3).
Conclusion: Testicular cancer is increasing in incidence in many countries; however, mortality rates remain low and most men are cured. An understanding of the risks and long-term side effects of treatment are important in managing men with this disease.
Keywords: testicular cancer, global, incidence, mortality
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