Ginaton improves neurological function in ischemic stroke rats via inducing autophagy and maintaining mitochondrial homeostasis
Authors Li X, Zhang D, Bai Y, Xiao J, Jiao H, He R
Received 16 February 2019
Accepted for publication 20 May 2019
Published 3 July 2019 Volume 2019:15 Pages 1813—1822
Checked for plagiarism Yes
Review by Single-blind
Peer reviewers approved by Prof. Dr. Roumen Kirov
Peer reviewer comments 3
Editor who approved publication: Dr Yu-Ping Ning
Xiaoqiang Li,1 Deli Zhang,1 Yinliang Bai,1 Jiyuan Xiao,1 Haisheng Jiao,1 Rongxia He2
1Department of Pharmacy, Lanzhou University Second Hospital, Lanzhou 730030, People’s Republic of China; 2Department of Gynecology, Lanzhou University Second Hospital, Lanzhou 730030, People’s Republic of China
Purpose: The present study was carried out to confirm the protective effect of extract of Ginkgo biloba (Ginaton) against ischemic neuronal damage post-treatment at 24 h after reperfusion in rats with middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) and further reveal its possible mechanisms.
Methods: Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were modeled by MCAO for 2 h. The rats were divided into three groups: sham, model, and Ginaton (50 mg/kg). All animals received treatment once a day for 14 days from 24 h after reperfusion. Modified neurological severity score test was performed in 1, 7 and 14 days after MCAO, and beam walking test was performed only 14 days after MCAO. Hematoxylin-eosin straining was implemented to measure infarct volume and immunohistochemical analysis was performed to calculate the number of neurons in ischemic cortex penumbra. Western blot was used to evaluate the expression of autophagy (Beclin1, LC3, AMPK, mTOR, ULK), mitochondrial dynamic protein (Parkin, DRP1, OPA1) and apoptosis (Bcl-2, Bax).
Results: Post-treatment with Ginaton for 14 days decreased neurological deficit score, promoted the recovery of motor function, and noticeably reduced infarct size. Besides, Ginaton also alleviated the loss of NeuN-positive cells in ischemic cortex penumbra. In ischemic cortex, Ginaton increased the expression of Beclin1 and LC3-Ⅱ, elevated the AMPK, mTOR and ULK1, and induced autophagy. Moreover, Ginaton treatment upregulated Parkin, DRP1, and OPA1, and elevated the ratio of Bcl-2/Bax in 14 days after MCAO reperfusion injury.
Conclusion: Ginaton exhibited obvious neuroprotective effects in MCAO rats with initial administered 24 h after MCAO. The mechanism of Ginaton included induction of autophagy via activation of the AMPK pathway, maintenance of mitochondrial homeostasis and inhibition of apoptosis.
Keywords: Ginaton, ischemic stroke, middle cerebral artery occlusion, autophagy, apoptosis, mitochondrial function
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