Back to Journals » Botanics: Targets and Therapy » Volume 5

Genistein reduces angiogenesis and apoptosis in women with endometrial hyperplasia

Authors Granese R, Bitto A, Polito F, Triolo O, Giordano D, Santamaria A, Squadrito F, D'Anna R

Received 6 June 2014

Accepted for publication 27 August 2014

Published 27 January 2015 Volume 2015:5 Pages 27—32


Checked for plagiarism Yes

Review by Single-blind

Peer reviewer comments 3

Editor who approved publication: Professor Ayse Kuruuzum-Uz

Roberta Granese,1,* Alessandra Bitto,2,* Francesca Polito,2 Onofrio Triolo,1 Domenico Giordano,1 Angelo Santamaria,1 Francesco Squadrito,2 Rosario D’Anna1
1Department of Paediatric, Gynaecological, Microbiological, and Biomedical Sciences, 2Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Section of Pharmacology, University of Messina, Messina, Italy

*These authors contributed equally to this work

Abstract: Endometrial hyperplasia without cytological atypia is commonly treated with progestins, but other treatments may be available with equivalent efficacy and reduced side effects. Here, we evaluate the effect of genistein aglycone on angiogenesis and apoptosis-related markers women with endometrial hyperplasia. Premenopausals (n=38) with nonatypical endometrial hyperplasia were administered either genistein aglycone (54 mg/day, n=19) or norethisterone acetate (10 mg/day, n=19) on days 16–25 of the menstrual cycle and evaluated for 6 months. Biopsies were taken during hysteroscopy at baseline and 6 months, and symptoms including excessive uterine bleeding were assessed at baseline and 3 and 6 months following recruitment. The expression of angiogenesis (Vegf), epithelial (Egf and Tgfb), and apoptosis-related (Bax, Bcl-2, and Casp-9) molecules, were assessed in uterine biopsies at baseline and after 6 months of therapy. Follicle-stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone, estradiol, SHBG, and progesterone levels were also measured. After 6 months, 42% of genistein aglycone-administered patients had a significant improvement of symptoms compared to 47% of norethisterone acetate subjects. No significant differences were noted in hormone levels for any treatment. Gene expression revealed a significant reduction in Vegf, Egf, and Tgfb (P<0.05 versus baseline), and an increase in proapoptotic molecules (Bax and Casp-9), with a concomitant decrease in Bcl-2 values (P<0.05) in both groups. These results suggest that genistein aglycone might be useful for the management of endometrial hyperplasia without atypia in women who cannot or do not wish to be treated with progestin.

Keywords: genistein, endometrial hyperplasia, Vegf, Bcl-2, Bax, Casp-9

Creative Commons License This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited. The full terms of this license are available at and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution - Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License. By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed. For permission for commercial use of this work, please see paragraphs 4.2 and 5 of our Terms.

Download Article [PDF]  View Full Text [HTML][Machine readable]