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Genetic Biomarkers For Hepatocellular Carcinoma In The Era Of Precision Medicine

Authors Duan J, Wu Y, Liu J, Zhang J, Fu Z, Feng T, Liu M, Han J, Li Z, Chen S

Received 26 July 2019

Accepted for publication 18 September 2019

Published 18 October 2019 Volume 2019:6 Pages 151—166


Checked for plagiarism Yes

Review by Single anonymous peer review

Peer reviewer comments 2

Editor who approved publication: Dr Ahmed Kaseb

Jingxian Duan,1 Yuling Wu,2 Jikui Liu,3 Jiajia Zhang,2 Zhichao Fu,2 Tieshan Feng,2 Ming Liu,2 Jie Han,2 Zhicheng Li,1 Shifu Chen1,2

1Department of Biomedical and Health Engineering, Shenzhen Institutes of Advanced Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenzhen, People’s Republic of China; 2Department of Oncology, HaploX Biotechnology Co. Ltd, Shenzhen 518000, People’s Republic of China; 3Department of Hepatobiliary and Pancreatic Surgery, Peking University Shenzhen Hospital, Shenzhen 518036, People’s Republic of China

Correspondence: Shifu Chen
Department of Biomedical and Health Engineering, Shenzhen Institutes of Advanced Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenzhen, People’s Republic of China
Tel +86 135 1042 7830

Abstract: Being one of the most lethal cancers that exhibit high levels of heterogeneity, hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is associated with diverse oncogenic pathways underpinned by varied driver genes. HCC can be induced by different etiological factors including virus infection, toxin exposure or metabolic disorders. Consequently, patients may display varied genetic profiles, and may respond differently to the treatments involving inhibition of target pathways. These DNA/RNA mutations, copy number variations, chromatin structural changes, aberrant expression of non-coding RNAs and epigenetic modifications were considered as biomarkers in the application of precision medication. To explore how genetic testing could contribute to early diagnosis, prognosis, treatment and postoperative monitoring of HCC, we conducted a systematic review of genetic markers associated with different pathologies. Moreover, we summarized on-going clinical trials for HCC treatment, including the trials for multiple kinase inhibitors and immune checkpoint blockade (ICB). The efficacy of ICB treatment in HCC is not as good as what was observed in lung cancer and melanoma, which might be due to the heterogeneity of the microenvironment of the liver.

Keywords: genetic biomarkers, hepatocellular carcinoma, genomic sequencing, clinical trials

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