G-CSF associates with neurogenesis and predicts prognosis and sensitivity to chemotherapy in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma
Authors Zhang L, Tao L, Guo L, Zhan J, Yuan C, Ma Z, Jiang B, Xiu D
Received 10 February 2018
Accepted for publication 28 May 2018
Published 17 August 2018 Volume 2018:10 Pages 2767—2775
Checked for plagiarism Yes
Review by Single-blind
Peer reviewers approved by Dr Andrew Yee
Peer reviewer comments 2
Editor who approved publication: Dr Antonella D'Anneo
Lingfu Zhang,1 Lianyuan Tao,1 Limei Guo,2 Jun Zhan,3 Chunhui Yuan,1 Zhaolai Ma,1 Bin Jiang,1 Dianrong Xiu1
1Department of General Surgery, Peking University Third Hospital, Beijing, People’s Republic of China; 2Department of Pathology, Peking University Third Hospital, Beijing, People’s Republic of China; 3Laboratory of Molecular Cell Biology and Tumor Biology, Department of Anatomy, Histology and Embryology, Peking University Health Science Center, Beijing, People’s Republic of China
Background: Recent studies demonstrated that granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF), regularly used for the prevention of neutropenia, is engaged in cancer progression. However, the role of G-CSF in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is not clear. The aim of the present study was to investigate the expression and prognostic value of G-CSF in patients with PDAC.
Materials and methods: The localization and expression of G-CSF in PDAC were examined by immunohistochemistry (IHC). The analysis of the levels of G-CSF in plasma was evaluated using ELISA kit. The correlation between G-CSF expression and patients’ survival was assessed by Kaplan–Meier analysis.
Results: In IHC specimens, G-CSF was discovered predominantly in the cell cytoplasm and expressed in most of PDAC, while in plasma, the systemic level of G-CSF is no different between normal patients and pancreatic cancer patients. In 100 PDAC cases with IHC, patients with grades 2 and 3 were defined as the high expression group (41 patients, 41%), and those with grades 0 and 1 as the low expression group (59 patients, 59%). Significant correlation was noted between high G-CSF expression and neural invasion (P = 0.042) or early recurrence (P < 0.001). G-CSF appeared to be an independent adverse prognostic factor (hazard ratio = 1.774, 95% confidence interval 1.150–2.737, P = 0.010) in addition to N stage (P = 0.002). Specifically, adjuvant chemotherapy consisting of gemcitabine prolongs survival of patients with high G-CSF expression (median survival time 14 months vs 7.5 months). Morphologically, high G-CSF expression cells demonstrate the association with neurogenesis.
Conclusion: High expression of G-CSF is a prognostic marker and an indicator to chemotherapy response in PDAC.
Keywords: pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma, granulocyte colony-stimulating factor, adjuvant chemotherapy, neural invasion, neurogenesis, prognosis
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