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Fullerene–biomolecule conjugates and their biomedicinal applications

Authors Yang X, Ebrahimi A, Li J, Cui Q

Received 12 August 2013

Accepted for publication 18 September 2013

Published 18 December 2013 Volume 2014:9(1) Pages 77—92

DOI https://doi.org/10.2147/IJN.S52829

Checked for plagiarism Yes

Review by Single-blind

Peer reviewer comments 4

Xinlin Yang,1 Ali Ebrahimi,1 Jie Li,1,2 Quanjun Cui1

1Orthopaedic Research Laboratory, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, University of Virginia School of Medicine, Charlottesville, VA, USA; 2School of Materials Science, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing, People's Republic of China

Abstract: Fullerenes are among the strongest antioxidants and are characterized as "radical sponges." The research on biomedicinal applications of fullerenes has achieved significant progress since the landmark publication by Friedman et al in 1993. Fullerene–biomolecule conjugates have become an important area of research during the past 2 decades. By a thorough literature search, we attempt to update the information about the synthesis of different types of fullerene–biomolecule conjugates, including fullerene-containing amino acids and peptides, oligonucleotides, sugars, and esters. Moreover, we also discuss in this review recently reported data on the biological and pharmaceutical utilities of these compounds and some other fullerene derivatives of biomedical importance. While within the fullerene–biomolecule conjugates, in which fullerene may act as both an antioxidant and a carrier, specific targeting biomolecules conjugated to fullerene will undoubtedly strengthen the delivery of functional fullerenes to sites of clinical interest.

Keywords: fullerene, amino acid, peptide, oligonucleotide, sugar, ester

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