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Frontal Fibrosing Alopecia. An Example of Disrupted Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor-Mediated Immunological Homeostasis in the Skin?

Authors Noakes R

Received 14 May 2020

Accepted for publication 8 July 2020

Published 27 July 2020 Volume 2020:13 Pages 479—484


Checked for plagiarism Yes

Review by Single anonymous peer review

Peer reviewer comments 3

Editor who approved publication: Dr Jeffrey Weinberg

Rowland Noakes

Queensland Institute of Dermatology, South Brisbane, Queensland, Australia

Correspondence: Rowland Noakes
Queensland Institute of Dermatology, 10 Browning Street, South Brisbane, Queensland, Australia
Tel +61 7 33294400
Fax +61 7 3329 4455
Email [email protected]

Abstract: Sun protection has been recommended by public health authorities to reduce the risk of keratinocyte and melanocyte tumors, yet some sun exposure is required for vitamin D synthesis. Frontal fibrosing alopecia (FFA) is a cicatricial alopecia that has been reported to have an association with facial photoprotection. The brief review proposes the hypothesis that FFA arises as a result of excessive facial photo-protection with a resultant disturbance in immunological homeostasis mediated via the aryl hydrocarbon receptor-kynurenine pathway axis (AHR/KP) leading to the collapse of immune privilege at the hair bulge.

Keywords: sun exposure, aryl hydrocarbon receptor, frontal fibrosing alopecia, 6-formylindolo [3, 2-b]carbazole

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