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Therapeutic effects of C-28 methyl ester of 2-cyano-3,12-dioxoolean-1,9-dien-28-oic acid (CDDO-Me; bardoxolone methyl) on radiation-induced lung inflammation and fibrosis in mice

Authors Wang Y, Zhang C, Ma Y, He Z, Zhe H, Zhou S

Received 15 January 2015

Accepted for publication 9 February 2015

Published 22 June 2015 Volume 2015:9 Pages 3163—3178

DOI https://doi.org/10.2147/DDDT.S80958

Checked for plagiarism Yes

Review by Single anonymous peer review

Peer reviewer comments 3

Editor who approved publication: Prof. Dr. Wei Duan


Yan-Yang Wang,1,* Cui-Ying Zhang,2,* Ya-Qiong Ma,3 Zhi-Xu He,4 Hong Zhe,1 Shu-Feng Zhou5

1Department of Radiation Oncology, General Hospital of Ningxia Medical University, 2Graduate School, Ningxia Medical University, 3Department of Pathology, General Hospital of Ningxia Medical University, 4Guizhou Provincial Key Laboratory for Regenerative Medicine, Stem Cell and Tissue Engineering Research Center and Sino-US Joint Laboratory for Medical Sciences, Guizhou Medical University, Guiyang, People’s Republic of China; 5Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, College of Pharmacy, University of South Florida, FL, USA

*These authors contributed equally to this work

Abstract: The C-28 methyl ester of 2-cyano-3,12-dioxoolean-1,9-dien-28-oic acid (CDDO-Me), one of the synthetic triterpenoids, has been found to have potent anti-inflammatory and anticancer properties in vitro and in vivo. However, its usefulness in mitigating radiation-induced lung injury (RILI), including radiation-induced lung inflammation and fibrosis, has not been tested. The aim of this study was to explore the therapeutic effect of CDDO-Me on RILI in mice and the underlying mechanisms. Herein, we found that administration of CDDO-Me improved the histopathological score, reduced the number of inflammatory cells and concentrations of total protein in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, suppressed secretion and expression of proinflammatory cytokines, including transforming growth factor-β and interleukin-6, elevated expression of the anti-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-10, and downregulated the mRNA level of profibrotic genes, including for fibronectin, a-smooth muscle actin, and collagen I. CDDO-Me attenuated radiation-induced lung inflammation. CDDO-Me also decreased the Masson’s trichrome stain score, hydroxyproline content, and mRNA level of profibrotic genes, and blocked radiation-induced collagen accumulation and fibrosis. Collectively, these findings suggest that CDDO-Me ameliorates radiation-induced lung inflammation and fibrosis, and this synthetic triterpenoid is a promising novel therapeutic agent for RILI. Further mechanistic, efficacy, and safety studies are warranted to elucidate the role of CDDO-Me in the management of RILI.

Keywords: CDDO-Me, radiotherapy, radiation-induced lung injury, cytokine, fibrosis, inflammation, transforming growth factor-β, mouse

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