PACE4 regulates apoptosis in human prostate cancer cells via endoplasmic reticulum stress and mitochondrial signaling pathways
Authors Yao Z, Sun B, Hong Q, Yan J, Mu D, Li J, Sheng H, Guo H
Received 18 April 2015
Accepted for publication 22 May 2015
Published 5 November 2015 Volume 2015:9 Pages 5911—5923
Checked for plagiarism Yes
Review by Single anonymous peer review
Peer reviewer comments 3
Editor who approved publication: Professor Shu-Feng Zhou
Zhiyong Yao, Bin Sun, Quan Hong, Jingmin Yan, Dawei Mu, Jianye Li, Haibo Sheng, Heqing Guo
Department of Urology, Air Force General Hospital of People’s Liberation Army, Beijing, People’s Republic of China
Backgrounds: PACE4 is a proprotein convertase capable of processing numerous substrates involved in tumor growth, invasion, and metastasis. However, the precise role of PACE4 during prostate cancer cell apoptosis has not been reported.
Methods: In the present study, human prostate cancer cell lines-DU145, LNCaP, and PC3 were transfected with PACE4 small interfering (si)RNA to investigate the underlying mechanisms of apoptosis.
Results: We revealed that PACE4 siRNA exhibited antitumor activity by inducing apoptosis, as determined by Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK-8), 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay, cell cycle analysis, Hoechst staining, caspase-3/7 activity, and western blot analysis. In addition, PACE4 siRNA significantly increased the ratio of Bax/Bcl-2, which led to the release of cytochrome c. Moreover, PACE4 siRNA also induced endoplasmic reticulum stress by increasing the expression of GRP78, GRP94, p-PERK, and p-eIF2α. The ratio of Bax/Bcl-2 and GRP78 were also increased in PACE4 gene knockdown prostate cancer cells compared with the control cells.
Conclusion: These data demonstrate that PACE4 siRNA may exert its antitumor activity through mitochondrial and endoplasmic reticulum stress signaling pathways, indicating it may be a novel therapeutic target for prostate cancer.
Keywords: tumor growth, small interfering RNA, GRP78, Bax/Bcl-2, gene knockdown
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