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Neuroprotective and antioxidant effects of ghrelin in an experimental glaucoma model

Authors Can N, Catak O, Turgut B, Demir T, Ilhan N, Kuloglu T, Ozercan IH

Received 18 February 2015

Accepted for publication 23 March 2015

Published 2 June 2015 Volume 2015:9 Pages 2819—2829

DOI https://doi.org/10.2147/DDDT.S83067

Checked for plagiarism Yes

Review by Single anonymous peer review

Peer reviewer comments 2

Editor who approved publication: Professor Shu-Feng Zhou


Nagehan Can,1 Onur Catak,2 Burak Turgut,2 Tamer Demir,2 Nevin Ilhan,3 Tuncay Kuloglu,4 Ibrahim Hanifi Ozercan5

1Department of Ophthalmology, Elaziğ Training and Research Hospital, 2Department of Ophthalmology, 3Department of Biochemistry, 4Department of Histology and Embryology, 5Department of Pathology, School of Medicine, Firat University, Elaziğ, Turkey

Abstract: Damage to retinal ganglion cells due to elevation of intraocular pressure (IOP) is responsible for vision loss in glaucoma. Given that loss of these cells is irreversible, neuroprotection is crucial in the treatment of glaucoma. In this study, we investigated the possible antioxidant and neuroprotective effects of ghrelin on the retina in an experimental glaucoma model. Twenty-one Sprague–Dawley rats were randomly assigned to three groups comprising seven rats each. The rats in the control group were not operated on and did not receive any treatment. In all rats in the other groups, IOP was increased by cauterization of the limbal veins. After creation of the IOP increase, saline 1 mL/kg or ghrelin 40 µg/kg was administered intraperitoneally every day for 14 days in the vehicle control group and ghrelin groups, respectively. On day 14 of the study, the eyes were enucleated. Levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), nitric oxide (NO), and nitric oxide synthase-2 (NOS2) in anterior chamber fluid were measured. The retinas were subjected to immunohistochemistry staining for glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), S-100, and vimentin expression. Mean levels of MDA, NO, and NOS2 in the aqueous humor were higher in the vehicle control group than in the control group (P<0.05). Mean levels of MDA, NO, and NOS2 in the ghrelin group did not show a significant increase compared with levels in the control group (P>0.05). Retinal TUNEL and immunohistochemistry staining in the vehicle control group showed an increase in apoptosis and expression of GFAP, S-100, and vimentin compared with the control group (P<0.05). In the ghrelin group, apoptosis and expression of GFAP, S-100, and vimentin was significantly lower than in the vehicle control group (P<0.05). This study suggests that ghrelin has antioxidant and neuroprotective effects on the retina in an experimental glaucoma model.

Keywords: experimental glaucoma, ganglion cells, ghrelin, neuroprotective, antioxidant

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