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Investigation of cyclooxygenase and signaling pathways involved in human platelet aggregation mediated by synergistic interaction of various agonists

Authors Khan N, Farooq A, Sadek B

Received 10 March 2015

Accepted for publication 29 April 2015

Published 6 July 2015 Volume 2015:9 Pages 3497—3506


Checked for plagiarism Yes

Review by Single anonymous peer review

Peer reviewer comments 4

Editor who approved publication: Professor Shu-Feng Zhou

Nadia Khan,1,2 Ahsana Dar Farooq,1 Bassem Sadek2

1Dr Panjwani Center for Molecular Medicine and Drug Research, International Center for Chemical and Biological Sciences, University of Karachi, Karachi, Pakistan; 2Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, United Arab Emirates University, Al Ain, United Arab Emirates

Abstract: In the present study, the mechanism(s) of synergistic interaction of various platelet mediators such as arachidonic acid (AA) when combined with 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) or adenosine diphosphate (ADP) on human platelet aggregation were examined. The results demonstrated that 5-HT had no or negligible effect on aggregation but it did potentiate the aggregation response of AA. Similarly, the combination of subeffective concentrations of ADP and AA exhibited noticeable rise in platelet aggregation. Moreover, the observed synergistic effect of AA with 5-HT on platelets was inhibited by different cyclooxygenase (COX) inhibitors, namely ibuprofen and celecoxib, with half maximal inhibitory effect (IC50) values of 18.0±1.8 and 15.6±3.4 µmol/L, respectively. Interestingly, the synergistic effect observed for AA with 5-HT was, also, blocked by the 5-HT receptor blockers cyproheptadine (IC50=22.0±7 µmol/L), ketanserin (IC50=152±23 µmol/L), phospholipase C (PLC) inhibitor (U73122; IC50=6.1±0.8 µmol/L), and mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) inhibitor (PD98059; IC50=3.8±0.5 µmol/L). Likewise, the synergism of AA and ADP was, also, attenuated by COX inhibitors (ibuprofen; IC50=20±4 µmol/L and celecoxib; IC50=24±7 µmol/L), PLC inhibitor (U73122; IC50=3.7±0.3 µmol/L), and MAPK inhibitor (PD98059; IC50=2.8±1.1 µmol/L). Our observed data demonstrate that the combination of subthreshold concentrations of agonists amplifies platelet aggregation and that these synergistic effects largely depend on activation of COX/thromboxane A2, receptor-operated Ca2+ channels, Gq/PLC, and MAPK signaling pathways. Moreover, our data revealed that inhibition of COX pathways by using both selective and/or non-selective COX inhibitors blocks not only AA metabolism and thromboxane A2 formation, but also its binding to Gq receptors and activation of receptor-operated Ca2+ channels in platelets. Overall, our results show that PLC and MAPK inhibitors proved to inhibit the synergistic activation of platelets by several/multiple agonists.

Keywords: synergism, platelet aggregation, cyclooxygenase, signaling pathway, arachidonic acid, 5-hydroxytryptophan, adenosine-5-diphosphate

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