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In vitro and in vivo anti-angiogenic activity of girinimbine isolated from Murraya koenigii

Authors Iman V, Karimian H, Mohan S, Hobani Y, Noordin MI, Mustafa M, Mohd Noor S

Received 22 July 2014

Accepted for publication 1 September 2014

Published 3 March 2015 Volume 2015:9 Pages 1281—1292


Checked for plagiarism Yes

Review by Single anonymous peer review

Peer reviewer comments 2

Editor who approved publication: Professor Shu-Feng Zhou

Venoos Iman,1 Hamed Karimian,1 Syam Mohan,2 Yahya Hasan Hobani,2 Mohamed Ibrahim Noordin,1 Mohd Rais Mustafa,3 Suzita Mohd Noor4

1Department of Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia; 2Medical Research Center, University of Jazan, Jazan, Saudi Arabia; 3Department of Pharmacology, Centre for Natural Products and Drug Discovery (CENAR), Faculty of Medicine, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia; 4Department of Biomedical Science, Faculty of Medicine, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia

Abstract: Girinimbine is a carbazole alkaloid isolated from the stem bark and root of Murraya koenigii. Here we report that girinimbine is an inhibitor of angiogenic activity both in vitro and in vivo. MTT results showed that girinimbine inhibited proliferation of human umbilical vein endothelial cells, while results from endothelial cell invasion, migration, tube formation, and wound healing assays demonstrated significant time- and dose-dependent inhibition by girinimbine. A proteome profiler array done on girinimbine-treated human umbilical vein endothelial cells showed that girinimbine had mediated regulation of pro-angiogenic and anti-angiogenic proteins. The anti-angiogenic potential of girinimbine was also evidenced in vivo in the zebrafish embryo model wherein girinimbine inhibited neo vessel formation in zebrafish embryos following 24 hours of exposure. Together, these results showed that girinimbine could effectively suppress angiogenesis, suggestive of its therapeutic potential as a novel angiogenesis inhibitor.

Keywords: angiogenesis, inhibitor, carbazole alkaloid, zebrafish

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